500 BC


REJOICE at the glad tidings! The Buddha our Lord has found the
root of all evil; he has shown us the way of salvation. The Buddha
dispels the illusions of our mind and redeems us from the terror of
The Buddha, our Lord, brings comfort to the weary and
sorrow-laden; he restores peace to those who are broken down under the
burden of life. He gives courage to the weak when they would fain give
up self-reliance and hope. You who suffer from the tribulations of
life, you who have to struggle and endure, you who yearn for a life of
truth, rejoice at the glad tidings! There is balm for the wounded, and
there is bread for the hungry. There is water for the thirsty, and
there is hope for the despairing. There is light for those in
darkness, and there is inexhaustible blessing for the upright.
Heal your wounds, you wounded, and eat your fill, you hungry.
Rest, you weary, and you who are thirsty quench your thirst. Look up
to the light, you who sit in darkness; be full of good cheer, you
who are forlorn.
Trust in truth, You who love the truth, for the kingdom of
righteousness is founded upon earth. The darkness of error is
dispelled by the light of truth. We can see our way and take firm
and certain steps. The Buddha, our Lord, has revealed the truth. The
truth cures our diseases and redeems us from perdition; the truth
strengthens us in life and in death; the truth alone can conquer the
evils of error. Rejoice at the glad tidings!


LOOK about and contemplate life! Everything is transient and nothing
endures. There is birth and death, growth and decay; there is
combination and separation. The glory of the world is like a flower:
it stands in full bloom in the morning and fades in the heat of the
Wherever you look, there is a rushing and a struggling, and an eager
pursuit of pleasure. There is a panic flight from pain and death,
and hot are the flames of burning desires. The world is Vanity Fair,
full of changes and transformations. All is Samsara, the turning Wheel
of Existence.
Is there nothing permanent in the world? Is there in the universal
turmoil no resting-place where our troubled heart can find peace? Is
there nothing everlasting? Oh, that we could have cessation of
anxiety, that our burning desires would be extinguished! When shall
the mind become tranquil and composed?
The Buddha, our Lord, was grieved at the ills of life. He saw the
vanity of worldly happiness and sought salvation in the one thing that
will not fade or perish, but will abide for ever and ever.
You who long for life, learn that immortality is hidden in
transiency. You who wish for happiness without the sting of regret,
lead a life of righteousness. You who yearn for riches, receive
treasures that are eternal. Truth is wealth, and a life of truth is
All compounds will be dissolved again, but the verities which
determine all combinations and separations as laws of nature endure
for ever and aye. Bodies fall to dust, but the truths of the mind will
not be destroyed.
Truth knows neither birth nor death; it has no beginning and no end.
Welcome the truth. The truth is the immortal part of mind. Establish
the truth in your mind, for the truth is the image of the eternal;
it portrays the immutable; it reveals the everlasting; the truth gives
unto mortals the boon of immortality.
The Buddha has proclaimed the truth; let the truth of the Buddha
dwell in your hearts. Extinguish in yourselves every desire that
antagonizes the Buddha, and in the perfection of your spiritual growth
you will become like unto him. That of your heart which cannot or will
not develop into Buddha must perish, for it is mere illusion and
unreal; it is the source of your error; it is the cause of your
You attain to immortality by filling your minds with truth.
Therefore, become like unto vessels fit to receive the Master's words.
Cleanse yourselves of evil and sanctify your lives. There is no
other way of reaching truth.
Learn to distinguish between Self and Truth. Self is the cause of
selfishness and the source of evil; truth cleaves to no self; it is
universal and leads to justice and righteousness. Self, that which
seems to those who love their self as their being, is not the eternal,
the everlasting, the imperishable. Seek not self, but seek the truth.
If we liberate our souls from our petty selves, wish no ill to
others, and become clear as a crystal diamond reflecting the light
of truth, what a radiant picture will appear in us mirroring things as
they are, without the admixture of burning desires, without the
distortion of erroneous illusion, without the agitation of clinging
and unrest.
Yet you love self and will not abandon self-love. So be it, but
then, verily, you should learn to distinguish between the false self
and the true self. The ego with all its egotism is the false self.
It is an unreal illusion and a perishable combination. He only who
identifies his self with the truth will attain Nirvana; and he who has
entered Nirvana has attained Buddhahood; he has acquired the highest
good; he has become eternal and immortal.
All compound things shall be dissolved again, worlds will break to
pieces and our individualities will be scattered; but the words of
Buddha will remain for ever.
The extinction of self is salvation; the annihilation of self is the
condition of enlightenment; the blotting out of self is Nirvana.
Happy is he who has ceased to live for pleasure and rests in the
truth. Verily his composure and tranquility of mind are the highest
Let us take our refuge in the Buddha, for he has found the
everlasting in the transient. Let us take our refuge in that which
is the immutable in the changes of existence. Let us take our refuge
in the truth that is established through the enlightenment of the
Buddha. Let us take our refuge in the community of those who seek
the truth and endeavor to live in the truth.


THE things of the world and its inhabitants are subject to change.
They are combinations of elements that existed before, and all
living creatures are what their past actions made them; for the law of
cause and effect is uniform and without exception.
But in the changing things there is a constancy of law, and when the
law is seen there is truth. The truth lies hidden in Samsara as the
permanent in its changes.
Truth desires to appear; truth longs to become conscious; truth
strives to know itself.
There is truth in the stone, for the stone is here; and no power
in the world, no god, no man, no demon, can destroy its existence. But
the stone has no consciousness. There is truth in the plant and its
life can expand; the plant grows and blossoms and bears fruit. Its
beauty is marvelous, but it has no consciousness. There is truth in
the animal; it moves about and perceives its surroundings; it
distinguishes and learns to choose. There is consciousness, but it
is not yet the consciousness of Truth. It is a consciousness of self
The consciousness of self dims the eyes of the mind and hides the
truth. It is the origin of error, it is the source of illusion, it
is the germ of evil. Self begets selfishness. There is no evil but
what flows from self. There is no wrong but what is done by the
assertion of self. Self is the beginning of all hatred, of iniquity
and slander, of impudence and indecency, of theft and robbery, of
oppression and bloodshed. Self is Mara, the tempter, the evil-doer,
the creator of mischief. Self entices with pleasures. Self promises
a fairy's paradise. Self is the veil of Maya, the enchanter. But the
pleasures of self are unreal, its paradisian labyrinth is the road
to misery, and its fading beauty kindles the flames of desires that
never can be satisfied.
Who shall deliver us from the power of self? Who shall save us
from misery? Who shall restore us to a life of blessedness?
There is misery in the world of Samsara; there is much misery and
pain. But greater than all the misery is the bliss of truth. Truth
gives peace to the yearning mind; it conquers error; it quenches the
flames of desires; it leads to Nirvana. Blessed is he who has found
the peace of Nirvana. He is at rest in the struggles and
tribulations of life; he is above all changes; he is above birth and
death; he remains unaffected by the evils of life.
Blessed is he who has found enlightenment. He conquers, although
he may be wounded; he is glorious and happy, although he may suffer;
he is strong, although he may break down under the burden of his work;
he is immortal, although he will die. The essence of his being is
purity and goodness.
Blessed is he who has attained the sacred state of Buddhahood, for
he is fit to work out the salvation of his fellow beings. The truth
has taken its abode in him. Perfect wisdom illumines his
understanding, and righteousness ensouls the purpose of all his
actions. The truth is a living power for good, indestructible and
invincible! Work the truth out in your mind, and spread it among
mankind, for truth alone is the savior from evil and misery. The
Buddha has found the truth and the truth has been proclaimed by the
Buddha! Blessed be the Buddha!


There was in Kapilavatthu a Sakya king, strong of purpose and
reverenced by all men, a descendant of the Okkakas, who call
themselves Gotama, and his name was Suddhodana or Pure-Rice. His
wife Mayadevi was beautiful as the water-lily and pure in mind as
the lotus. As the Queen of Heaven, she lived on earth, untainted by
desire, and immaculate.
The king, her husband, honored her in her holiness, and the spirit
of truth, glorious and strong in his wisdom like unto a white
elephant, descended upon her. When she knew that the hour of
motherhood was near, she asked the king to send her home to her
parents; and Suddhodana, anxious about his wife and the child she
would bear him, willingly granted her request.
At Lumbini there is a beautiful grove, and when Mayadevi passed
through it the trees were one mass of fragrant flowers and many
birds were warbling in their branches. The Queen, wishing to stroll
through the shady walks, left her golden palanquin, and, when she
reached the giant sala tree in the midst of the grove, felt that her
hour had come. She took hold of a branch. Her attendants hung a
curtain about her and retired. When the pain of travail came upon her,
four pure-minded angels of the great Brahma held out a golden net to
receive the babe, who came forth from her right side like the rising
sun bright and perfect.
The Brahma-angels took the child and placing him before the mother
said: "Rejoice, O queen, a mighty son has been born unto thee."
At her couch stood an aged woman imploring the heavens to bless
the child. All the worlds were flooded with light. The blind
received their sight by longing to see the coming glory of the Lord;
the deaf and dumb spoke with one another of the good omens
indicating the birth of the Buddha to be. The crooked became straight;
the lame walked. All prisoners were freed from their chains and the
fires of all the hells were extinguished.
No clouds gathered in the skies and the polluted streams became
clear, whilst celestial music rang through the air and the angels
rejoiced with gladness. With no selfish or partial joy but for the
sake of the law they rejoiced, for creation engulfed in the ocean of
pain was now to obtain release. The cries of beasts were hushed; all
malevolent beings received a loving heart, and peace reigned on earth.
Mara, the evil one, alone was grieved and rejoiced not.
The Naga kings, earnestly desiring to show their reverence for
most excellent law, as they had paid honor to former Buddhas, now went
to greet the Bodhisattva. They scattered before him mandara flowers,
rejoicing with heartfelt joy to pay their religious homage.
The royal father, pondering the meaning of these signs, was now full
of joy and now sore distressed. The queen mother, beholding her
child and the commotion which his birth created, felt in her
timorous heart the pangs of doubt.
Now there was at that time in a grove near Lumbini Asita, a rishi,
leading the life of a hermit. He was a Brahman of dignified mien,
famed not only for wisdom and scholarship, but also for his skill in
the interpretation of signs. And the king invited him to see the royal
The seer, beholding the prince, wept and sighed deeply. And when the
king saw the tears of Asita he became alarmed and asked: "Why has
the sight of my son caused thee grief and pain?"
But Asita's heart rejoiced, and, knowing the king's mind to be
perplexed, he addressed him, saying: "The king, like the moon when
full, should feel great joy, for he has begotten a wondrously noble
son. I do not worship Brahma, but I worship this child; and the gods
in the temples will descend from their places of honor to adore him.
Banish all anxiety and doubt. The spiritual omens manifested
indicate that the child now born will bring deliverance to the whole
"Recollecting that I myself am old, on that account I could not hold
my tears; for now my end is coming on and I shall not see the glory of
this babe. For this son of thine will rule the world. The wheel of
empire will come to him. He will either be a king of kings to govern
all the lands of the earth, or verily will become a Buddha. He is born
for the sake of everything that lives. His pure teaching will be
like the shore that receives the shipwrecked. His power of
meditation will be like a cool lake; and all creatures parched with
the drought of lust may freely drink thereof. On the fire of
covetousness he will cause the cloud of his mercy to rise, so that the
rain of the law may extinguish it. The heavy gates of despondency will
he open, and give deliverance to all creatures ensnared in the
self-entwined meshes of folly and ignorance. The king of the law has
come forth to rescue from bondage all the poor, the miserable, the
When the royal parents heard Asita's words they rejoiced in their
hearts and named their new-born infant Siddhattha, that is he who
has accomplished his purpose."
And the queen said to her sister, Pajapati: "A mother who has
borne a future Buddha will never give birth to another child. I
shall soon leave this world, my husband, the king, and Siddhattha,
my child. When I am gone, be thou a mother to him." And Pajapati
wept and promised.
When the queen had departed from the living, Pajapati took the boy
Siddhattha and reared him. And as the light of the moon increases
little by little, so the royal child grew from day to day in mind
and in body; and truthfulness and love resided in his heart. When a
year had passed Suddhodana the king made Pajapati his queen and
there was never a better stepmother than she.


WHEN Siddhattha had grown to youth, his father desired to see him
married, and he sent to all his kinsfolk, commanding them to bring
their princesses that the prince might select one of them as his wife.
But the kinsfolk replied and said: "The prince is young and
delicate; nor has he learned any of the sciences. He would not be able
to maintain our daughter, and should there be war he would be unable
to cope with the enemy."
The prince was not boisterous, but pensive in his nature. He loved
to stay under the great jambu-tree in the garden of his father, and,
observing the ways of the world, gave himself up to meditation. And
the prince said to his father: "Invite our kinsfolk that they may
see me and put my strength to the test." And his father did as his son
bade him.
When the kinsfolk came, and the people of the city Kapilavatthu
had assembled to test the prowess and scholarship of the prince, he
proved himself manly in all the exercises both of the body and of
the mind, and there was no rival among the youths and men of India who
could surpass him in any test, bodily or mental. He replied to all the
questions of the sages; but when he questioned them, even the wisest
among them were silenced.
Then Siddhattha chose himself a wife. He selected his cousin
Yasodhara, the gentle daughter of the king of Koli. In their wedlock
was born a son whom they named Rahula which means "fetter" or "tie,"
and King Suddhodana, glad that an heir was born to his son, said: "The
prince having begotten a son, will love him as I love the prince. This
will be a strong tie to bind Siddhattha's heart to the interests of
the world, and the kingdom of the Sakyas will remain under the scepter
of my descendants."
With no selfish aim, but regarding his child and the people at
large, Siddhattha, the prince, attended to his religious duties,
bathing his body in the holy Ganges and cleansing his heart in the
waters of the law. Even as men desire to give happiness to their
children, so did he long to give peace to the world.


THE palace which the king had given to the prince was resplendent
with all the luxuries of India; for the king was anxious to see his
son happy. All sorrowful sights, all misery, and all knowledge of
misery were kept away from Siddhattha, for the king desired that no
troubles should come nigh him; he should not know that there was
evil in the world.
But as the chained elephant longs for the wilds of the jungles, so
the prince was eager to see the world, and he asked his father, the
king, for permission to do so. And Suddhodana ordered a
jewel-fronted chariot with four stately horses to be held ready, and
commanded the roads to be adorned where his son would pass.
The houses of the city were decorated with curtains and banners, and
spectators arranged themselves on either side, eagerly gazing at the
heir to the throne. Thus Siddhattha rode with Channa, his
charioteer, through the streets of the city, and into a country
watered by rivulets and covered with pleasant trees.
There by the wayside they met an old man with bent frame, wrinkled
face and sorrowful brow, and the prince asked the charioteer: "Who
is this? His head is white, his eyes are bleared, and his body is
withered. He can barely support himself on his staff."
The charioteer, much embarrassed, hardly dared speak the truth. He
said: "These are the symptoms of old age. This same man was once a
suckling child, and as a youth full of sportive life; but now, as
years have passed away, his beauty is gone and the strength of his
life is wasted."
Siddhattha was greatly affected by the words of the charioteer,
and he sighed because of the pain of old age. "What joy or pleasure
can men take," he thought to himself, when they know they must soon
wither and pine away!"
And lo! while they were passing on, a sick man appeared on the
way-side, gasping for breath, his body disfigured, convulsed and
groaning with pain. The prince asked his charioteer: "What kind of man
is this?" And the charioteer replied and said: "This man is sick.
The four elements of his body are confused and out of order. We are
all subject to such conditions: the poor and the rich, the ignorant
and the wise, all creatures that have bodies are liable to the same
And Siddhattha was still more moved. All pleasures appeared stale to
him, and he loathed the joys of life.
The charioteer sped the horses on to escape the dreary sight, when
suddenly they were stopped in their fiery course. Four persons
passed by, carrying a corpse; and the prince, shuddering at the
sight of a lifeless body, asked the charioteer: "What is this they
carry? There are streamers and flower garlands; but the men that
follow are overwhelmed with grief!"
The charioteer replied: "This is a dead man: his body is stark;
his life is gone; his thoughts are still; his family and the friends
who loved him now carry the corpse to the grave." And the prince was
full of awe and terror: "Is this the only dead man, he asked, or
does the world contain other instances?"
With a heavy heart the charioteer replied: "All over the world it is
the same. He who begins life must end it. There is no escape from
With bated breath and stammering accents the prince exclaimed: "O
worldly men! How fatal is your delusion! Inevitably your body will
crumble to dust, yet carelessly, unheedingly, ye live on." The
charioteer observing the deep impression these sad sights had made
on the prince, turned his horses and drove back to the city.
When they passed by the palace of the nobility, Kisa Gotami, a young
princess and niece of the king, saw Siddhattha in his manliness and
beauty, and, observing the thoughtfulness of his countenance, said:
"Happy the father that begot thee, happy the mother that nursed
thee, happy the wife that calls husband this lord so glorious."
The prince hearing this greeting, said: "Happy are they that have
found deliverance. Longing for peace of mind, I shall seek the bliss
of Nirvana."
Then asked Kisa Gotami: "How is Nirvana attained?" The prince
paused, and to him whose mind was estranged from wrong the answer
came: "When the fire of lust is gone out, then Nirvana is gained; when
the fires of hatred and delusion are gone out, then Nirvana is gained;
when the troubles of mind, arising from blind credulity, and all other
evils have ceased, then Nirvana is gained!"
Siddhattha handed her his precious pearl necklace as a reward for
the wisdom she had inspired in him, and having returned home looked
with disdain upon the treasures of his palace.
His wife welcomed him and entreated him to tell her the cause of his
grief. He said: "I see everywhere the impression of change; therefore,
my heart is heavy. Men grow old, sicken, and die. That is enough to
take away the zest of life."
The king, his father, hearing that the prince had become estranged
from pleasure, was greatly overcome with sorrow and like a sword it
pierced his heart.


IT was night. The prince found no rest on his soft pillow; he
arose and went out into the garden. "Alas!" he cried "all the world is
full of darkness and ignorance; there is no one who knows how to
cure the ills of existence." And he groaned with pain.
Siddhattha sat down beneath the great jambu-tree and gave himself to
thought, pondering on life and death and the evils of decay.
Concentrating his mind he became free from confusion. All low
desires vanished from his heart and perfect tranquility came over him.
In this state of ecstasy he saw with his mental eye all the misery
and sorrow of the world; he saw the pains of pleasure and the
inevitable certainty of death that hovers over every being; yet men
are not awakened to the truth. And a deep compassion seized his heart.
While the prince was pondering on the problem of evil, he beheld
with his mind's eye under the jambu tree a lofty figure endowed with
majesty, calm and dignified. "Whence comest thou, and who mayst thou
be asked the prince.
In reply the vision said: "I am a samana. Troubled at the thought of
old age, disease, and death I have left my home to seek the path of
salvation. All things hasten to decay; only the truth abideth forever.
Everything changes, and there is no permanency; yet the words of the
Buddhas are immutable. I long for the happiness that does not decay;
the treasure that will never perish; the life that knows of no
beginning and no end. Therefore, I have destroyed all worldly thought.
I have retired into an unfrequented dell to live in solitude; and,
begging for food, I devote myself to the one thing needful.
Siddhattha asked: "Can peace be gained in this world of unrest? I am
struck with the emptiness of pleasure and have become disgusted with
lust. All oppresses me, and existence itself seems intolerable."
The samana replied: "Where heat is, there is also a possibility of
cold; creatures subject to pain possess the faculty of pleasure; the
origin of evil indicates that good can be developed. For these
things are correlatives. Thus where there is much suffering, there
will be much bliss, if thou but open thine eyes to behold it. Just
as a man who has fallen into a heap of filth ought to seek the great
pond of water covered with lotuses, which is near by: even so seek
thou for the great deathless lake of Nirvana to wash off the
defilement of wrong. If the lake is not sought, it is not the fault of
the lake. Even so when there is a blessed road leading the man held
fast by wrong to the salvation of Nirvana, if the road is not walked
upon, it is not the fault of the road, but of the person. And when a
man who is oppressed with sickness, there being a physician who can
heal him, does not avail himself of the physician's help, that is
not the fault of the physician. Even so when a man oppressed by the
malady of wrong-doing does not seek the spiritual guide of
enlightenment, that is no fault of the evil-destroying guide."
The prince listened to the noble words of his visitor and said:
"Thou bringest good tidings, for now I know that my purpose will be
accomplished. My father advises me to enjoy life and to undertake
worldly duties, such as will bring honor to me and to our house. He
tells me that I am too young still, that my pulse beats too full to
lead a religious life."
The venerable figure shook his head and replied: "Thou shouldst know
that for seeking a religious life no time can be inopportune."
A thrill of joy passed through Siddhattha's heart. "Now is the
time to seek religion," he said; "now is the time to sever all ties
that would prevent me from attaining perfect enlightenment; now is the
time to wander into homelessness and, leading a mendicant's life, to
find the path of deliverance."
The celestial messenger heard the resolution of Siddhattha with
approval. "Now, indeed he added, is the time to seek religion. Go,
Siddhattha, and accomplish thy purpose. For thou art Bodhisatta, the
Buddha-elect; thou art destined to enlighten the world. Thou art the
Tathagata, the great master, for thou wilt fulfill all righteousness
and be Dharmaraja, the king of truth. Thou art Bhagavat, the Blessed
One, for thou art called upon to become the savior and redeemer of the
world. Fulfill thou the perfection of truth. Though the thunderbolt
descend upon thy head, yield thou never to the allurements that
beguile men from the path of truth. As the sun at all seasons
pursues his own course, nor ever goes on another, even so if thou
forsake not the straight path of righteousness, thou shalt become a
Buddha. Persevere in thy quest and thou shalt find what thou
seekest. Pursue thy aim unswervingly and thou shalt gain the prize.
Struggle earnestly and thou shalt conquer. The benediction of all
deities, of all saints of all that seek light is upon thee, and
heavenly wisdom guides thy steps. Thou shalt be the Buddha, our
Master, and our Lord; thou shalt enlighten the world and save
mankind from perdition.
Having thus spoken, the vision vanished, and Siddhattha's heart
was filled with peace. He said to himself: "I have awakened to the
truth and I am resolved to accomplish my purpose. I will sever all the
ties that bind me to the world, and I will go out from my home to seek
the way of salvation. The Buddhas are beings whose words cannot
fail: there is no departure from truth in their speech. For as the
fall of a stone thrown into the air, as the death of a mortal, as
the sunrise at dawn, as the lion's roar when he leaves his lair, as
the delivery of a woman with child, as all these things are sure and
certain-even so the word of the Buddhas is sure and cannot fail.
Verily I shall become a Buddha."
The prince returned to the bedroom of his wife to take a last
farewell glance at those whom he dearly loved above all the
treasures of the earth. He longed to take the infant once more into
his arms and kiss him with a parting kiss. But the child lay in the
arms of his mother, and the prince could not lift him without
awakening both. There Siddhattha stood gazing at his beautiful wife
and his beloved son, and his heart grieved. The pain of parting
overcame him powerfully. Although his mind was determined, so that
nothing, be it good or evil, could shake his resolution, the tears
flowed freely from his eyes, and it was beyond his power to check
their stream. But the prince tore himself away with a manly heart,
suppressing his feelings but not extinguishing his memory.
The Bodhisattva mounted his noble steed Kanthaka, and when he left
the palace, Mara stood in the gate and stopped him: "Depart not, O
my Lord," exclaimed Mara. "In seven days from now the wheel of
empire will appear, and will make thee sovereign over the four
continents and the two thousand adjacent islands. Therefore, stay,
my Lord."
The Bodhisattva replied: "Well do I know that the wheel of empire
will appear to me; but it is not sovereignty that I desire. I will
become a Buddha and make all the world shout for joy."
Thus Siddhattha, the prince, renounced power and worldly
pleasures, gave up his kingdom, severed all ties, and went into
homelessness. He rode out into the silent night, accompanied only by
his faithful charioteer Channa. Darkness lay upon the earth, but the
stars shone brightly in the heavens.


SIDDHATTHA had cut his waving hair and had exchanged his royal
robe for a mean dress of the color of the ground. Having sent home
Channa, the charioteer, together with the noble steed Kanthaka, to
King Suddhodana to bear him the message that the prince had left the
world, the Bodhisattva walked along on the highroad with a beggar's
bowl in his hand.
Yet the majesty of his mind was ill-concealed under the poverty of
his appearance. His erect gait betrayed his royal birth and his eyes
beamed with a fervid zeal for truth. The beauty of his youth was
transfigured by holiness and surrounded his head like a halo. All
the people who saw this unusual sight gazed at him in wonder. Those
who were in haste arrested their steps and looked back; and there
was no one who did not pay him homage.
Having entered the city of Rajagaha, the prince went from house to
house silently waiting till the people offered him food. Wherever
the Blessed One came, the people gave him what they had; they bowed
before him in humility and were filled with gratitude because he
condescended to approach their homes. Old and young people were
moved and said: "This is a noble muni! His approach is bliss. What a
great joy for us!"
And King Bimbisara, noticing the commotion in the city, inquired the
cause of it, and when he learned the news sent one of his attendants
to observe the stranger. Having heard that the muni must be a Sakya
and of noble family, and that he had retired to the bank of a
flowing river in the woods to eat the food in his bowl, the king was
moved in his heart; he donned his royal robe, placed his golden
crown upon his head and went out in the company of aged and wise
counselors to meet his mysterious guest.
The king found the muni of the Sakya race seated under a tree.
Contemplating the composure of his face and the gentleness of his
deportment, Bimbisara greeted him reverently and said: "O samana,
thy hands are fit to grasp the reins of an empire and should not
hold a beggar's bowl. I am sorry to see thee wasting thy youth.
Believing that thou art of royal descent, I invite thee to join me
in the government of my country and share my royal power. Desire for
power is becoming to the noble-minded, and wealth should not be
despised. To grow rich and lose religion is not true gain. But he
who possesses all three, power, wealth, and religion, enjoying them in
discretion and with wisdom, him I call a great master."
The great Sakyamuni lifted his eyes and replied: "Thou art known,
O king, to be liberal and religious, and thy words are prudent. A kind
man who makes good use of wealth is rightly said to possess a great
treasure; but the miser who hoards up his riches will have no
profit. Charity is rich in returns; charity is the greatest wealth,
for though it scatters, it brings no repentance.
"I have severed all ties because I seek deliverance. How is it
possible for me to return to the world? He who seeks religious
truth, which is the highest treasure of all, must leave behind all
that can concern him or draw away his attention, and must be bent upon
that one goal alone. He must free his soul from covetousness and lust,
and also from the desire for power.
"Indulge in lust but a little, and lust like a child will grow.
Wield worldly power and you will be burdened with cares. Better than
sovereignty over the earth, better than living in heaven, better
than lordship over all the worlds, is the fruit of holiness. The
Bodhisattva has recognized the illusory nature of wealth and will
not take poison as food. Will a fish that has been baited still
covet the hook, or an escaped bird love the net? Would a rabbit
rescued from the serpent's mouth go back to be devoured? Would a man
who has burnt his hand with a torch take up the torch after he had
dropped it to the earth? Would a blind man who has recovered his sight
desire to spoil his eyes again?
"The sick man suffering from fever seeks for a cooling medicine.
Shall we advise him to drink that which will increase the fever? Shall
we quench a fire by heaping fuel upon it?
"I pray thee, pity me not. Rather pity those who are burdened with
the cares of royalty and the worry of great riches. They enjoy them in
fear and trembling, for they are constantly threatened with a loss
of those boons on whose possession their hearts are set, and when they
die they cannot take along either their gold or the kingly diadem.
"My heart hankers after no vulgar profit, so I have put away my
royal inheritance and prefer to be free from the burdens of life.
Therefore, try not to entangle me in new relationships and duties, nor
hinder me from completing the work I have begun. I regret to leave
thee. But I will go to the sages who can teach me religion and so find
the path on which we can escape evil.
"May thy country enjoy peace and prosperity, and may wisdom be
shed upon thy rule like the brightness of the noon-day sun. May thy
royal power be strong and may righteousness be the scepter in thine
The king, clasping his hands with reverence, bowed down before
Sakyamuni and said: "Mayest thou obtain that which thou seekest, and
when thou hast obtained it, come back, I pray thee, and receive me
as thy disciple." The Bodhisattva parted from the king in friendship
and goodwill, and purposed in his heart to grant his request.


ALARA and Uddaka were renowned as teachers among the Brahmans, and
there was no one in those days who surpassed them in learning and
philosophical knowledge. The Bodhisattva went to them and sat at their
feet. He listened to their doctrines of the atman or self, which is
the ego of the mind and the doer of all doings. He learned their views
of the transmigration of souls and of the law of karma; how the
souls of bad men had to suffer by being reborn in men of low caste, in
animals, or in hell, while those who purified themselves by
libation, by sacrifices, and by self-mortification would become kings,
or Brahmans, or devas, so as to rise higher and higher in the grades
of existence. He studied their incantations and offerings and the
methods by which they attained deliverance of the ego from material
existence in states of ecstasy.
Alara said: "What is that self which perceives the actions of the
five roots of mind, touch, smell, taste, sight, and hearing? What is
that which is active in the two ways of motion, in the hands and in
the feet? The problem of the soul appears in the expressions 'I
say,' 'I know and perceive,' 'I come,' and 'I go' or 'I will stay
here.' Thy soul is not thy body; it is not thy eye, not thy ear, not
thy nose, not thy tongue, nor is it thy mind. The I is the one who
feels the touch in thy body. The I is the smeller in the nose, the
taster in the tongue, the seer in the eye, the hearer in the ear,
and the thinker in the mind. The I moves thy hands and thy feet. The I
is thy soul. Doubt in the existence of the soul is irreligious, and
without discerning this truth there is no way of salvation. Deep
speculation will easily involve the mind; it leads to confusion and
unbelief; but a purification of the soul leads to the way of escape.
True deliverance is reached by removing from the crowd and leading a
hermit's life, depending entirely on alms for food. Putting away all
desire and clearly recognizing the non-existence of matter, we reach a
state of perfect emptiness. Here we find the condition of immaterial
life. As the munja grass when freed from its horny case, as a sword
when drawn from its scabbard, or as the wild bird escaped from its
prison, so the ego liberating itself from all limitations, finds
perfect release. This is true deliverance, but those only who will
have deep faith will learn."
The Bodhisattva found no satisfaction in these teachings. He
replied: "People are in bondage, because they have not yet removed the
idea of the ego. The thing and its quality are different in our
thought, but not in reality. Heat is different from fire in our
thought, but you cannot remove heat from fire in reality. You say that
you can remove the qualities and leave the thing, but if you think
your theory to the end, you will find that this is not so.
"Is not man an organism of many aggregates? Are we not composed of
various attributes? Man consists of the material form, of sensation,
of thought, of dispositions, and, lastly, of understanding. That which
men call the ego when they say 'I am' is not an entity behind the
attributes; it originates by their co-operation. There is mind;
there is sensation and thought, and there is truth; and truth is
mind when it walks in the path of righteousness. But there is no
separate ego-soul outside or behind the thought of man. He who
believes the ego is a distinct being has no correct conception. The
very search for the atman is wrong; it is a wrong start and it will
lead you in a false direction.
"How much confusion of thought comes from our interest in self,
and from our vanity when thinking 'I am so great,' or 'I have done
this wonderful deed?' The thought of thine ego stands between thy
rational nature and truth; banish it, and then wilt thou see things as
they are. He who thinks correctly will rid himself of ignorance and
acquire wisdom. The ideas 'I am' and 'I shall be' or 'I shall not
be' do not occur to a clear thinker.
"Moreover, if our ego remains, how can we attain true deliverance?
If the ego is to be reborn in any of the three worlds, be it in
hell, upon earth, or be it even in heaven, we shall meet again and
again the same inevitable doom of sorrow. We shall remain chained to
the wheel of individuality and shall be implicated in egotism and
wrong. All combination is subject to separation, and we cannot
escape birth, disease, old age, and death. Is this a final escape?"
Said Uddaka: "Consider the unity of things. Things are not their
parts, yet they exist. The members and organs of thy body are not
thine ego, but thine ego possesses all these parts. What, for
instance, is the Ganges? Is the sand the Ganges? Is the water the
Ganges? Is the hither bank the Ganges? Is the hither bank the
Ganges? Is the farther bank the Ganges? The Ganges is a mighty river
and it possesses all these several qualities. Exactly so is our ego."
But the Bodhisattva replied: "Not so, sir! If we remove the water,
the sand, the hither bank and the farther bank where can we find any
Ganges? In the same way I observe the activities of man in their
harmonious union, but there is no ground for an ego outside its
The Brahman sage, however, insisted on the existence of the ego,
saying: "The ego is the doer of our deeds. How can there be karma
without a self as its performer? Do we not see around us the effects
of karma? What makes men different in character, station, possessions,
and fate? It is their karma, and karma includes merit and demerit. The
transmigration of the soul is subject to its karma. We inherit from
former existences the evil effects of our evil deeds and the good
effects of our good deeds. If that were not so, how could we be
The Tathagata meditated deeply on the problems of transmigration and
karma, and found the truth that lies in them. "The doctrine of
karma, he said, is undeniable, but the theory of the ego has no
foundation. Like everything else in nature, the life of man is subject
to the law of cause and effect. The present reaps what the past has
sown, and the future is the product of the present. But there is no
evidence of the existence of an immutable ego-being, of a self which
remains the same and migrates from body to body. There is rebirth
but no transmigration.
"Is not this individuality of mine a combination, material as well
as mental? Is it not made up of qualities that sprang into being by
a gradual evolution? The five roots of sense perception in this
organism have come from ancestors who performed these functions. The
ideas which I think, came to me partly from others who thought them,
and partly they rise from combinations of the ideas in my own mind.
Those who have used the same sense-organs, and have thought the same
ideas before I was composed into this individuality of mine, are my
previous existences; they are my ancestors as much as the I of
yesterday is the father of the I of today, and the karma of my past
deeds affects the fate of my present existence.
"Supposing there were an atman that performs the actions of the
senses then if the door of sight were torn down and the eye plucked
out, that atman would be able to peep through the larger aperture
and see the forms of its surroundings better and more clearly than
before. It would be able to hear sounds better if the ears were torn
away; smell better if the nose were cut off; taste better if the
tongue were pulled out; and feel better if the body were destroyed.
"I observe the preservation and transmission of character; I
perceive the truth of karma, but see no atman whom your doctrine makes
the doer of your deeds. There is rebirth without the transmigration of
a self. For this atman, this self, this ego in the 'I say' and in
the 'I will' is an illusion. If this self were a reality, how could
there be an escape from selfhood? The terror of hell would be
infinite, and no release could be granted. The evils of existence
would not be due to our ignorance and wrong-doing, but would
constitute the very nature of our being."
Then the Bodhisattva went to the priests officiating in the temples.
But the gentle mind of the Sakyamuni was offended at the unnecessary
cruelty performed on the altars of the gods. He said: "Ignorance
only can make these men prepare festivals and hold vast meetings for
sacrifices. Far better to revere the truth than try to appease the
gods by shedding blood. What love can a man possess who believes
that the destruction of life will atone for evil deeds? Can a new
wrong expiate old wrongs? And can the slaughter of an innocent
victim blot out the evil deeds of mankind? This is practicing religion
by the neglect of moral conduct. Purify your hearts and cease to kill;
that is true religion. Rituals have no efficacy; prayers are vain
repetitions; and incantations have no saving power. But to abandon
covetousness and lust, to become free from evil passions, and to
give up all hatred and ill-will, that is the right sacrifice and the
true worship."


THE Bodhisattva went in search of a better system and came to a
settlement of five bhikkhus in the jungle of Uruvela; and when the
Blessed One saw the life of those five men, virtuously keeping in
check their senses, subduing their passions, and practicing austere
self-discipline, he admired their earnestness and joined their
company. With holy zeal and a strong heart, the Sakyamuni gave himself
up to meditative thought and a rigorous mortification of the body.
Whereas the five bhikkhus were severe, the Sakyamuni was severer
still, and so they revered him, their junior, as their master.
So the Bodhisattva continued for six years patiently torturing
himself and suppressing the wants of nature. He trained his body and
exercised his mind in the modes of the most rigorous ascetic life.
At last, he ate each day one hemp grain only, seeking to cross the
ocean of birth and death and to arrive at the shore of deliverance.
And when the Bodhisattva was ahungered, lo! Mara, the Evil One,
approached him and said: "Thou art emaciated from fasts, and death
is near. What good is thy exertion? Deign to live, and thou wilt be
able to do good work." But the Sakyamuni made reply: "O thou friend of
the indolent, thou wicked one; for what purpose hast thou come? Let
the flesh waste away, if but the mind becomes more tranquil and
attention more steadfast. What is life in this world? Death in
battle is better to me than that I should live defeated."
And Mara withdrew, saying: "For seven years I have followed the
Blessed One step by step, but I have found no fault in the Tathagata."
The Bodhisattva was shrunken and attenuated, and his body was like a
withered branch; but the fame of his holiness spread in the
surrounding countries, and people came from great distances to see him
and receive his blessing. However, the Holy One was not satisfied.
Seeking true wisdom he did not find it, and he came to the
conclusion that mortification would not extinguish desire nor afford
enlightenment in ecstatic contemplation.
Seated beneath a jambu-tree, he considered the state of his mind and
the fruits of his mortification. His body had become weaker, nor had
his fasts advanced him in his search for salvation, and therefore when
he saw that it was not the right path, he proposed to abandon it. He
went to bathe in the Neranjara River, but when he strove to leave
the water he could not rise on account of his weakness. Then espying
the branch of a tree and taking hold of it, he raised himself and left
the stream. But while returning to his abode, he staggered and lay
as though dead.
There was a chief herdsman living near the grove whose eldest
daughter was called Nanda; and Nanda happened to pass by the spot
where the Blessed One had swooned, and bowing down before him she
offered him rice-milk and he accepted the gift. When he had partaken
of the rice-milk all his limbs were refreshed, his mind became clear
again, and he was strong to receive the highest enlightenment.
After this occurrence, the Bodhisattva again took some food. His
disciples, having witnessed the scene of Nanda and observing the
change in his mode of living, were filled with suspicion. They
feared that Siddhattha's religious zeal was flagging and that he
whom they had hitherto revered as their Master had become oblivious of
his high purpose.
When the Bodhisattva saw the bhikkhus turning away from him, he felt
sorry for their lack of confidence, and was aware of the loneliness of
his life. Suppressing his grief he wandered on alone, and his
disciples said, "Siddhattha leaves us to seek a more pleasant abode."


THE Holy One directed his steps to that blessed Bodhitree beneath
whose shade he was to accomplish his search. As he walked, the earth
shook and a brilliant light transfigured the world. When he sat down
the heavens resounded with joy and all living beings were filled
with good cheer. Mara alone, lord of the five desires, bringer of
death and enemy of truth, was grieved and rejoiced not. With his three
daughters, Tanha, Raga and Arati, the tempters, and with his host of
evil demons, he went to the place where the great samana sat. But
Sakyamuni heeded him not. Mara uttered fear-inspiring threats and
raised a whirlwind so that the skies were darkened and the ocean
roared and trembled.
But the Blessed One under the Bodhi-tree remained calm and feared
not. The Enlightened One knew that no harm could befall him.
The three daughters of Mara tempted the Bodhisattva, but he paid
no attention to them, and when Mara saw that he could kindle no desire
in the heart of the victorious samana, he ordered all the evil spirits
at his command to attack him and overawe the great muni. But the
Blessed One watched them as one would watch the harmless games of
children. All the fierce hatred of the evil spirits was of no avail.
The flames of hell became wholesome breezes of perfume, and the
angry thunderbolts were changed into lotus-blossoms.
When Mara saw this, he fled away with his army from the
Bodhi-tree, whilst from above a rain of heavenly flowers fell, and
voices of good spirits were heard: "Behold the great muni! his heart
unmoved by hatred. The wicked Mara's host 'gainst him did not prevail.
Pure is he and wise, loving and full of mercy. As the rays of the
sun drown the darkness of the world, so he who perseveres in his
search will find the truth and the truth will enlighten him."


THE Bodhisattva, having put Mara to flight, gave himself up to
meditation. All the miseries of the world, the evils produced by
evil deeds and the sufferings arising therefrom, passed before his
mental eye, and he thought:
"Surely if living creatures saw the results of all their evil deeds,
they would turn away from them in disgust. But selfhood blinds them,
and they cling to their obnoxious desires. They crave pleasure for
themselves and they cause pain to others; when death destroys their
individuality, they find no peace; their thirst for existence abides
and their selfhood reappears in new births. Thus they continue to move
in the coil and can find no escape from the hell of their own
making. And how empty are their pleasures, how vain are their
endeavors! Hollow like the plantain-tree and without contents like the
bubble. The world is full of evil and sorrow, because it is full of
lust. Men go astray because they think that delusion is better than
truth. Rather than truth they follow error, which is pleasant to
look at in the beginning but in the end causes anxiety, tribulation,
and misery."
And the Bodhisattva began to expound the Dharma. The Dharma is the
truth. The Dharma is the sacred law. The Dharma is religion. The
Dharma alone can deliver us from error, from wrong and from sorrow.
Pondering on the origin of birth and death, the Enlightened One
recognized that ignorance was the root of all evil; and these are
the links in the development of life, called the twelve nidanas: In
the beginning there is existence blind and without knowledge; and in
this sea of ignorance there are stirrings formative and organizing.
From stirrings, formative and organizing, rises awareness or feelings.
Feelings beget organisms that live as individual beings. These
organisms develop the six fields, that is, the five senses and the
mind. The six fields come in contact with things. Contact begets
sensation. Sensation creates the thirst of individualized being. The
thirst of being creates a cleaving to things. The cleaving produces
the growth and continuation of selfhood. Selfhood continues in renewed
birth. The renewed births of selfhood are the causes of sufferings,
old age, sickness, and death. They produce lamentation, anxiety, and
The cause of all sorrow lies at the very beginning; it is hidden
in the ignorance from which life grows. Remove ignorance and you
will destroy the wrong desires that rise from ignorance; destroy these
desires and you will wipe out the wrong perception that rises from
them. Destroy wrong perception and there is an end of errors in
individualized beings. Destroy the errors in individualized beings and
the illusions of the six fields will disappear. Destroy illusions
and the contact with things will cease to beget misconception. Destroy
misconception and you do away with thirst. Destroy thirst and you will
be free of all morbid cleaving. Remove the cleaving and you destroy
the selfishness of selfhood. If the selfishness of selfhood is
destroyed you will be above birth, old age, disease, and death, and
you will escape all suffering.
The Enlightened One saw the four noble truths which point out the
path that leads to Nirvana or the extinction of self: The first
noble truth is the existence of sorrow. The second noble truth is
the cause of suffering. The third noble truth is the cessation of
sorrow. The fourth noble truth is the eightfold path that leads to the
cessation of sorrow.
This is the Dharma. This is the truth. This is religion. And the
Enlightened One uttered this stanza:

"Through many births I sought in vain
The Builder of this House of Pain.
Now, Builder, You are plain to see,
And from this House at last I'm free;
I burst the rafters, roof and wall,
And dwell in the Peace beyond them all."

There is self and there is truth. Where self is, truth is not. Where
truth is, self is not. Self is the fleeting error of samsara; it is
individual separateness and that egotism which begets envy and hatred.
Self is the yearning for pleasure and the lust after vanity. Truth
is the correct comprehension of things; it is the permanent and
everlasting, the real in all existence, the bliss of righteousness.
The existence of self is an illusion, and here is no wrong in this
world, no vice, no evil, except what flows from the assertion of self.
The attainment of truth is possible only when self is recognized as an
illusion. Righteousness can be practiced only when we have freed our
mind from passions of egotism. Perfect peace can dwell only where
all vanity has disappeared.
Blessed is he who has understood the Dharma. Blessed is he who
does no harm to his fellow-beings. Blessed is he who overcomes wrong
and is free from passion. To the highest bliss has he attained who has
conquered all selfishness and vanity. He has become the Buddha, the
Perfect One.


THE Blessed One tarried in solitude seven times seven days, enjoying
the bliss of emancipation. At that time Tapussa and Bhallika, two
merchants, came traveling on the road near by, and when they saw the
great samana, majestic and full of peace, they approached him
respectfully and offered him rice cakes and honey.
This was the first food that the Enlightened One ate after he
attained Buddhahood.
And the Buddha addressed them and pointed out to them the way of
salvation. The two merchants, seeing the holiness of the conqueror
of Mara, bowed down in reverence and said: "We take our refuge,
Lord, in the Blessed One and in the Dharma." Tapussa and Bhallika were
the first that became followers of the Buddha and they were lay


THE Blessed One having attained Buddhahood while resting under the
shepherd's Nigrodha tree on the banks of the river Neranjara,
pronounced this solemn utterance:

"How sure his pathway in this wood,
Who follows truth's unchanging call!
How blessed, to be kind and good,
And practice self-restraint in all!
How light, from passion to be free,
And sensual joys to let go by!
And yet his greatest bliss will be
When he has quelled the pride of 'I'.

"I have recognized the deepest truth, which is sublime and
peace-giving' but difficult to understand; for most men move in a
sphere of worldly interests and find their delight in worldly desires.
The worldling will not understand the doctrine, for to him there is
happiness in selfhood only, and the bliss that lies in a complete
surrender to truth is unintelligible to him. He will call
resignation what to the enlightened mind is the purest joy. He will
see annihilation where the perfected one finds immortality. He will
regard as death what the conqueror of self knows to be life
everlasting. The truth remains hidden from him who is in the bondage
of hate and desire. Nirvana remains incomprehensible and mysterious to
the vulgar whose minds are beclouded with worldly interests. Should
I preach the doctrine and mankind not comprehend it, it would bring me
only fatigue and trouble."
Mara, the Evil One, on hearing the words of the Blessed Buddha,
approached and said: "Be greeted, thou Holy One. Thou hast attained
the highest bliss and it is time for thee to enter into the final
Then Brahma Sahampati descended from the heavens and, having
worshiped the Blessed One, said: "Alas! the world must perish,
should the Holy One, the Tathagata, decide not to teach the Dharma. Be
merciful to those that struggle; have compassion upon the sufferers;
pity the creatures who are hopelessly entangled in the snares of
sorrow. There are some beings that are almost free from the dust of
worldliness. If they hear not the doctrine preached, they will be
lost. But if they hear it, they will believe and be saved."
The Blessed One, full of compassion, looked with the eye of a Buddha
upon all sentient creatures, and he saw among them beings whose
minds were but scarcely covered by the dust of worldliness, who were
of good disposition and easy to instruct. He saw some who were
conscious of the dangers of lust and wrong doing. And the Blessed
One said to Brahma Sahampati: "Wide open be the door of immortality to
all who have ears to hear. May they receive the Dharma with faith."
Then the Blessed One turned to Mara, saying: "I shall not pass
into the final Nirvana, O Evil One, until there be not only brethren
and sisters of an Order, but also lay disciples of both sexes, who
shall have become true hearers, wise, well trained, ready and learned,
versed in the scriptures, fulfilling all the greater and lesser
duties, correct in life, walking according to the precepts-until they,
having thus themselves learned the doctrine, shall be able to give
information to others concerning it, preach it, make it known,
establish it, open it, minutely explain it, and make it clear-until
they, when others start vain doctrines, shall be able to vanquish
and refute them, and so to spread the wonderworking truth abroad. I
shall not die until the pure religion of truth shall have become
successful, prosperous, widespread, and popular in all its full
extent-until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed among
Then Brahma Sahampati understood that the Blessed One had granted
his request and would preach the doctrine.



Now the Blessed One thought: "To whom shall I preach the doctrine
first? My old teachers are dead. They would have received the good
news with joy. But my five disciples are still alive. I shall go to
them, and to them shall I first proclaim the gospel of deliverance."
At that time the five bhikkhus dwelt in the Deer Park at Benares,
and the Blessed One rose and journeyed to their abode, not thinking of
their unkindness in having left him at a time when he was most in need
of their sympathy and help, but mindful only of the services which
they had ministered unto him, and pitying them for the austerities
which they practiced in vain.
Upaka, a young Brahman and a Jain, a former acquaintance of
Siddhattha, saw the Blessed One while he journeyed to Benares, and,
amazed at the majesty and sublime joyfulness of his appearance, said
to him: "Thy countenance, my friend, is serene; thine eyes are
bright and indicate purity and blessedness."
The holy Buddha replied: "I have obtained deliverance by the
extinction of self. My body is chastened, my mind is free from desire,
and the deepest truth has taken abode in my heart. I have obtained
Nirvana, and this is the reason that my countenance is serene and my
eyes are bright. I now desire to found the kingdom of truth upon
earth, to give light to those who are enshrouded in darkness and to
open the gate of deathlessness."
Upaka replied: "Thou professest then, friend, to be Jina, the
conqueror of the world, the absolute one and the holy one.
The Blessed One said: "Jinas are all those who have conquered self
and the passions of self; those alone are victorious who control their
minds and abstain from evil. Therefore, Upaka, I am the Jina."
Upaka shook his head. "Venerable Gotama, he said, "thy way lies
yonder," and taking another road he went away.


ON seeing their old teacher approach, the five bhikkus agreed
among themselves not to salute him, nor to address him as a master,
but by his name only. "For," so they said, "he has broken his vow
and has abandoned holiness. He is no bhikkhu, but Gotama, and Gotama
has become a man who lives in abundance and indulges in the
pleasures of worldliness." But when the Blessed One approached in a
dignified manner, they involuntarily rose from their seats and greeted
him in spite of their resolution. Still they called him by his name
and addressed him as "friend Gotama."
When they had thus received the Blessed One, he said: "Do not call
the Tathagata by his name nor address him as 'friend,' for he is the
Buddha, the Holy One. The Buddha looks with a kind heart equally on
all living beings, and they therefore call him 'Father.' To disrespect
a father is wrong; to despise him, is wicked. The Tathagata, the
Buddha continued, does not seek salvation in austerities, but
neither does he for that reason indulge in worldly pleasures, nor live
in abundance. The Tathagata has found the middle path.
"There are two extremes, O bhikkhus, which the man who has given
up the world ought not to follow-the habitual practice, on the one
hand, of self-indulgence which is unworthy, vain and fit only for
the worldly-minded and the habitual practice, on the other hand, of
self-mortification, which is painful, useless and unprofitable.
"Neither abstinence from fish and flesh, nor going naked, nor
shaving the head, nor wearing matted hair, nor dressing in a rough
garment, nor covering oneself with dirt, nor sacrificing to Agni, will
cleanse a man who is not free from delusions. Reading the Vedas,
making offerings to priests, or sacrifices to the gods,
self-mortification by heat or cold and many such penances performed
for the sake of immortality, these do not cleanse the man who is not
free from delusions. Anger, drunkenness, obstinacy, bigotry,
deception, envy, self-praise, disparaging others, superciliousness and
evil intentions constitute uncleanness; not verily the eating of
"A middle path, O bhikkhus avoiding the two extremes, has been
discovered by the Tathagata-a path which opens the eyes, and bestows
understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom,
to full enlightenment, to Nirvana! What is that middle path, O
bhikkhus, avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the
Tathagata-that path which opens the eyes, and bestows understanding,
which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full
enlightenment, to Nirvana? Let me teach you, O bhikkhus, the middle
path, which keeps aloof from both extremes. By suffering, the
emaciated devotee produces confusion and sickly thoughts in his
mind. Mortification is not conducive even to worldly knowledge; how
much less to a triumph over the senses!
"He who fills his lamp with water will not dispel the darkness,
and he who tries to light a fire with rotten wood will fail. And how
can any one be free from self by leading a wretched life, if he does
not succeed in quenching the fires of lust, if he still hankers
after either worldly or heavenly pleasures? But he in whom self has
become extinct is free from lust; he will desire neither worldly nor
heavenly pleasures, and the satisfaction of his natural wants will not
defile him. However, let him be moderate, let him eat and drink
according to the need of the body.
"Sensuality is enervating; the self-indulgent man is a slave to
his passions, and pleasure-seeking is degrading and vulgar. But to
satisfy the necessities of life is not evil. To keep the body in
good health is a duty, for otherwise we shall not be able to trim
the lamp of wisdom, and keep our minds strong and clear. Water
surrounds the lotus flower, but does not wet its petals. This is the
middle path, O bhikkhus, that keeps aloof from both extremes." And the
Blessed One spoke kindly to his disciples, pitying them for their
errors, and pointing out the uselessness of their endeavors, and the
ice of ill-will that chilled their hearts melted away under the gentle
warmth of the Master's persuasion.
Now the Blessed One set the wheel of the most excellent law rolling,
and he began to preach to the five bhikkhus, opening to them the
gate of immortality, and showing them the bliss of Nirvana.
The Buddha said: "The spokes of the wheel are the rules of pure
conduct: justice is the uniformity of their length; wisdom is the
tire; modesty and thoughtfulness are the hub in which the immovable
axle of truth is fixed. He who recognizes the existence of
suffering, its cause, its remedy, and its cessation has fathomed the
four noble truths. He will walk in the right path.
"Right views will be the torch to light his way. Right aspirations
will be his guide. Right speech will be his dwelling-place on the
road. His gait will be straight, for it is right behavior. His
refreshments will be the right way of earning his livelihood. Right
efforts will be his steps: right thoughts his breath; and right
contemplation will give him the peace that follows in his footprints.
"Now, this, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning suffering:
Birth is attended with pain, decay is painful, disease is painful,
death is painful. Union with the unpleasant is painful, painful is
separation from the pleasant; and any craving that is unsatisfied,
that too is painful. In brief, bodily conditions which spring from
attachment are painful. This, then, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth
concerning suffering.
"Now this, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the origin of
suffering: Verily, it is that craving which causes the renewal of
existence, accompanied by sensual delight, seeking satisfaction now
here, now there, the craving for the gratification of the passions,
the craving for a future life, and the craving for happiness in this
life. This, then, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the origin
of suffering.
"Now this, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the destruction
of suffering: Verily, it is the destruction, in which no passion
remains, of this very thirst; it is the laying aside of, the being
free from, the dwelling no longer upon this thirst. This, then, O
bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the destruction of suffering.
"Now, this, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the way
which leads to the destruction of sorrow. Verily, it is this noble
eightfold path; that is to say: Right views; right aspirations;
right speech; right behavior; right livelihood; right effort; right
thoughts; and right contemplation. This, then, O bhikkhus, is the
noble truth concerning the destruction of sorrow.
"By the practice of loving-kindness I have attained liberation of
heart, and thus I am assured that I shall never return in renewed
births. I have even now attained Nirvana."
When the Blessed One had thus set the royal chariot wheel of truth
rolling onward, a rapture thrilled through all the universes. The
devas left their heavenly abodes to listen to the sweetness of the
truth; the saints that had parted from life crowded around the great
teacher to receive the glad tidings; even the animals of the earth
felt the bliss that rested upon the words of the Tathagata: and all
the creatures of the host of sentient beings, gods, men, and beasts,
hearing the message of deliverance, received and understood it in
their own language.
And when the doctrine was propounded, the venerable Kondanna, the
oldest one among the five bhikkhus, discerned the truth with his
mental eye, and he said: "Truly, O Buddha, our Lord, thou hast found
the truth!" Then the other bhikkhus too, joined him and exclaimed:
"Truly, thou art the Buddha, thou hast found the truth."
And the devas and saints and all the good spirits of the departed
generations that had listened to the sermon of the Tathagata, joyfully
received the doctrine and shouted: "Truly, the Blessed One has founded
the kingdom of righteousness. The Blessed One has moved the earth;
he has set the wheel of Truth rolling, which by no one in the
universe, be he god or man, can ever be turned back. The kingdom of
Truth will be preached upon earth; it will spread; and
righteousness, good-will, and peace will reign among mankind."


HAVING pointed out to the five bhikkhus the truth, the Buddha
said: "A man that stands alone, having decided to obey the truth,
may be weak and slip back into his old ways. Therefore, stand ye
together, assist one another, and strengthen one another efforts. Be
like unto brothers; one in love, one in holiness, and one in your zeal
for the truth. Spread the truth and preach the doctrine in all
quarters of the world, so that in the end all living creatures will be
citizens of the kingdom of righteousness. This is the holy
brotherhood; this is the church, the congregation of the saints of the
Buddha; this is the Sangha that establishes a communion among all
those who have taken their refuge in the Buddha."
Kondanna was the first disciple of the Buddha who had thoroughly
grasped the doctrine of the Holy One, and the Tathagata looking into
his heart said: "Truly, Kondanna has understood the truth."
Therefore the venerable Kondanna received the name "Annata-Kondanna
that is, "Kondanna who has understood the doctrine." Then the
venerable Kondanna spoke to the Buddha and said: "Lord, let us receive
the ordination from the blessed One." And the Buddha said: "Come, O
bhikkhus! Well taught is the doctrine. Lead a holy life for the
extinction of suffering."
Then Kondanna and the other bhikkhus uttered three times these
solemn vows: "To the Buddha will I look in faith: He, the Perfect One,
is holy and supreme. The Buddha conveys to us instruction, wisdom, and
salvation; he is the Blessed One, who knows the law of being; he is
the Lord of the world, who yoketh men like oxen, the Teacher of gods
and men, the Exalted Buddha. Therefore, to the Buddha will I look in
"To the doctrine will I look in faith: well-preached is the doctrine
by the Exalted One. The doctrine has been revealed so as to become
visible; the doctrine is above time and space. The doctrine is not
based upon hearsay, it means 'Come and see'; the doctrine to
welfare; the doctrine is recognized by the wise in their own hearts.
Therefore to the doctrine will I look in faith.
"To the community will I look in faith; the community of the
Buddha's disciples instructs us how to lead a life of righteousness;
the community of the Buddha's disciples teaches us how to exercise
honesty and justice; the community of the Buddha's disciples shows
us how to practice the truth. They form a brotherhood in kindness
and charity, and their saints are worthy of reverence. The community
of the Buddha's disciples is founded as a holy brotherhood in which
men bind themselves together to teach the behests of rectitude and
to do good. Therefore, to the community will I look in faith."
The gospel of the Blessed One increased from day to day, and many
people came to hear him and to accept the ordination to lead
thenceforth a holy life for the sake of the extinction of suffering.
And the Blessed One seeing that it was impossible to attend to all who
wanted to hear the truth and receive the ordination, sent out from the
number of his disciples such as were to preach the Dharma, and said
unto them:
"The Dharma and the Vinaya proclaimed by the Tathagata shine forth
when they are displayed, and not when they are concealed. But let
not this doctrine, so full of truth and so excellent, fall into the
hands of those unworthy of it, where it would be despised and
contemned, treated shamefully, ridiculed and censured. I now grant
you, O bhikkhus, this permission. Confer henceforth in the different
countries the ordination upon those who are eager to receive it,
when you find them worthy.
"Go ye now, O bhikkhus, for the benefit of the many, for the welfare
of mankind, out of compassion for the world. Preach the doctrine which
is glorious in the beginning, glorious in the middle, and glorious
in the end, in the spirit as well as in the letter. There are beings
whose eyes are scarcely covered with dust, but if the doctrine is
not preached to them they cannot attain salvation. Proclaim to them
a life of holiness. They will understand the doctrine and accept it."
And it became an established custom that the bhikkhus went out
preaching while the weather was good, but in the rainy season they
came together again and joined their master, to listen to the
exhortations of the Tathagata.


AT that time there was in Benares a noble youth, Yasa by name, the
son of a wealthy merchant. Troubled in his mind about the sorrows of
the world, he secretly rose up in the night and stole away to the
Blessed One. The Blessed One saw Yasa coming from afar. Yasa
approached and exclaimed: "Alas, what distress! What tribulations!"
The Blessed One said to Yasa: "Here is no distress; here are no
tribulations. Come to me and I will teach you the truth, and the truth
will dispel your sorrows."
When Yasa, the noble youth, heard that there were neither
distress, nor tribulations, nor sorrows, his heart was comforted. He
went into the place where the Blessed One was, and sat down near
him. Then the Blessed One preached about charity and morality. He
explained the vanity of the thought "I am"; the dangers of desire, and
the necessity of avoiding the evils of life in order to walk on the
path of deliverance.
Instead of disgust with the world, Yasa felt the cooling stream of
holy wisdom, and, having obtained the pure and spotless eye of
truth, he looked at his person, richly adorned with pearls and
precious stones, and his heart was shamed.
The Tathagata, knowing his inward thoughts, said: "Though a person
be ornamented with jewels, the heart may have conquered the senses.
The outward form does not constitute religion or affect the mind. Thus
the body of a samana may wear an ascetic's garb while his mind is
immersed in worldliness. A man that dwells in lonely woods and yet
covets worldly vanities, is a worldling, while the man in worldly
garments may let his heart soar high to heavenly thoughts. There is no
distinction between the layman and the hermit, if but both have
banished the thought of self."
Seeing that Yasa was ready to enter upon the path, the Blessed One
said to him: "Follow me!" And Yasa joined the brotherhood, and
having put on a bhikkhu's robe, received the ordination.
While the Blessed One and Yasa were discussing the doctrine,
Yasa's father passed by in search of his son; and in passing he
asked the Blessed One: "Pray, Lord, hast thou seen Yasa, my son?"
The Buddha said to Yasa's father: "Come in, sir, thou wilt find
thy son"; and Yasa's father became full of joy and he entered. He
sat down near his son, but his eyes were holden and he knew him not;
and the Lord began to preach. And Yasa's father, understanding the
doctrine of the Blessed One, said:
"Glorious is the truth, O Lord! The Buddha, the Holy One, our
Master, sets up what has been overturned; he reveals what has been
hidden; he points out the way to the wanderer who has gone astray;
he lights a lamp in the darkness so that all who have eyes to see
can discern the things that surround them. I take refuge in the
Buddha, our Lord: I take refuge in the doctrine revealed by him: I
take refuge in the brotherhood which he has founded. May the Blessed
One receive me from this day forth while my life lasts as a lay
disciple who has taken refuge in him." Yasa's father was the first
lay-member who became the first lay disciple of the Buddha by
pronouncing the three-fold formula of refuge.
When the wealthy merchant had taken refuge in the Buddha, his eyes
were opened and he saw his son sitting at his side in a bhikkhu's
robe. "My son, Yasa, he said, thy mother is absorbed in lamentation
and grief. Return home and restore thy mother to life."
Then Yasa looked at the Blessed One, who said: "Should Yasa return
to the world and enjoy the pleasures of a worldly life as he did
before?" Yasa's father replied: "If Yasa, my son, finds it a gain to
stay with thee, let him stay. He has become delivered from the bondage
of worldliness."
When the Blessed One had cheered their hearts with words of truth
and righteousness, Yasa's father said: "May the Blessed One, O Lord,
consent to take his meal with me together with Yasa as his attendant?"
The Blessed One, having donned his robes, took his alms-bowl and
went with Yasa to the house of the rich merchant. When they had
arrived there, the mother and also the former wife of Yasa saluted the
Blessed One and sat down near him.
Then the Blessed One preached, and the women having understood his
doctrine, exclaimed: "Glorious is the truth, O Lord! We take refuge in
the Buddha, our Lord. We take refuge in the doctrine revealed by
him. We take refuge in the brotherhood which has been founded by
him. May the Blessed One receive us from this day forth while our life
lasts as lay disciples who have taken refuge in him." The mother and
the wife of Yasa, the noble youth of Benares, were the first women who
became lay disciples and took their refuge in the Buddha.
Now there were four friends of Yasa belonging to the wealthy
families of Benares. Their names were Vimala, Subahu, Punnaji, and
When Yasa's friends heard that Yasa had cut off his hair and put
on bhikkhu robes to give up the world and go forth into
homelessness, they thought: "Surely that cannot be a common
doctrine, that must be a noble renunciation of the world.
And they went to Yasa, and Yasa addressed the Blessed One saying:
"May the Blessed One administer exhortation and instruction to these
four friends of mine." And the Blessed One preached to them, and
Yasa's friends accepted the doctrine and took refuge in the Buddha,
the Dharma, and the Sangha.


AT that time there lived in Uruvela the Jatilas, Brahman hermits
with matted hair, worshiping the fire and keeping a fire-dragon; and
Kassapa was their chief. Kassapa was renowned throughout all India,
and his name was honored as one of the wisest men on earth and an
authority on religion. And the Blessed One went to Kassapa of
Uruvela the Jatila, and said: "Let me stay a night in the room where
you keep your sacred fire."
Kassapa, seeing the Blessed One in his majesty and beauty, thought
to himself: "This is a great muni and a noble teacher. Should he
stay overnight in the room where the sacred fire is kept, the
serpent will bite him and he will die." And he said: "I do not
object to your staying overnight in the room where the sacred fire
is kept, but the serpent lives there; he will kill you and I should be
sorry to see you perish."
But the Buddha insisted and Kassapa admitted him to the room where
the sacred fire was kept. And the Blessed One sat down with body
erect, surrounding himself with watchfulness. In the night the
dragon came, belching forth in rage his fiery poison, and filling
the air with burning vapor, but could do him no harm, and the fire
consumed itself while the World-honored One remained composed. And the
venomous fiend became very wroth so that he died in his anger. When
Kassapa saw the light shining forth from the room he said: "Alas, what
misery! Truly, the countenance of Gotama the great Sakyamuni is
beautiful, but the serpent will destroy him."
In the morning the Blessed One showed the dead body of the fiend
to Kassapa, saying: "His fire has been conquered by my fire." And
Kassapa thought to himself. "Sakyamuni is a great samana and possesses
high powers, but he is not holy like me."
There was in those days a festival, and Kassapa thought: "The people
will come hither from all parts of the country and will see the
great Sakyamuni. When he speaks to them, they will believe in him
and abandon me." And he grew envious. When the day of the festival
arrived, the Blessed One retired and did not come to Kassapa. And
Kassapa went to the Buddha on the next morning and said: "Why did
the great Sakyamuni not come?"
The Tathagata replied: "Didst thou not think, O Kassapa, that it
would be better if I stayed away from the festival?" And Kassapa was
astonished and thought: "Great is Sakyamuni; he can read my most
secret thoughts, but he is not holy like me."
The Blessed One addressed Kassapa and said: "Thou seest the truth,
but acceptest it not because of the envy that dwells in thy heart.
Is envy holiness? Envy is the last remnant of self that has remained
in thy mind. Thou art not holy, Kassapa; thou hast not yet entered the
path." And Kassapa gave up his resistance. His envy disappeared,
and, bowing down before the Blessed One, he said: "Lord, our Master,
let me receive the ordination from the Blessed One."
And the Blessed One said: "Thou, Kassapa, art chief of the
Jatilas. Go, then, first and inform them of thine intention, and let
them do as thou thinkest fit." Then Kassapa went to the Jatilas and
said: "I am anxious to lead a religious life under the direction of
the great Sakyamuni, who is the Enlightened One, the Buddha. Do as
ye think best."
The Jatilas replied: "We have conceived a profound affection for the
great Sakyamuni, and if thou wilt join his brotherhood, we will do
likewise." The Jatilas of Uruvela now flung their paraphernalia of
fire-worship into the river and went to the Blessed One.
Nadi Kassapa and Gaya Kassapa, brothers of the great Uruvela
Kassapa, powerful men and chieftains among the people, were dwelling
below on the stream, and when they saw the instruments used in
fire-worship floating in the river, they said: "Something has happened
to our brother. And they came with their folk to Uruvela. Hearing what
had happened, they, too, went to the Buddha.
The Blessed One, seeing that the Jatilas of Nadi and Gaya, who had
practiced severe austerities and worshiped fire, were now come to him,
preached a sermon on fire, and said: "Everything, O Jatilas, is
burning. The eye is burning, all the senses are burning, thoughts
are burning. They are burning with the fire of lust. There is anger,
there is ignorance, there is hatred, and as long as the fire finds
inflammable things upon which it can feed, so long will it burn, and
there will be birth and death, decay, grief, lamentation, suffering,
despair, and sorrow. Considering this, a disciple of the Dharma will
see the four noble truths and walk in the eightfold path of
holiness. He will become wary of his eye, wary of all his senses, wary
of his thoughts. He will divest himself of passion and become free. He
will be delivered from selfishness and attain the blessed state of
And the Jatilas rejoiced and took refuge in the Buddha, the
Dharma, and the Sangha.


THE Blessed One having dwelt some time in Uruvela went to
Rajagaha, accompanied by a number of bhikkhus, many of whom had been
Jatilas before. The great Kassapa, chief of the Jatilas and formerly a
fire worshiper, went with him.
When the Magadha king, Seniya Bimbisara, heard of the arrival of
Gotama Sakyamuni, of whom the people said, "He is the Holy One, the
blessed Buddha, guiding men as a driver curbs bullocks, the teacher of
high and low," he went out surrounded with his counselors and generals
and came to the grove where the Blessed One was. There they saw the
Blessed One in the company of Kassapa, the great religious teacher
of the Jatilas, and they were astonished and thought: "Has the great
Sakyamuni placed himself under the spiritual direction of Kassapa,
or has Kassapa become a disciple of Gotama?"
The Tathagata, reading the thoughts of the people, said to
Kassapa: "What knowledge hast thou gained, O Kassapa, and what has
induced thee to renounce the sacred fire and give up thine austere
Kassapa said: "The profit I derived from adoring the fire was
continuance in the wheel of individuality with all its sorrows and
vanities. This service I have cast away, and instead of continuing
penances and sacrifices I have gone in quest of the highest Nirvana.
Since I have seen the light of truth, I have abandoned worshiping
the fire."
The Buddha, perceiving that the whole assembly was ready as a vessel
to receive the doctrine, spoke thus to Bimbisara the king: "He who
knows the nature of self and understands how the senses act, finds
no room for selfishness, and thus he will attain peace unending. The
world holds the thought of self, and from this arises false
apprehension. Some say that the self endures after death, some say
it perishes. Both are wrong and their error is most grievous. For if
they say the self is perishable, the fruit they strive for will perish
too, and at some time there will be no hereafter. Good and evil
would be indifferent. This salvation from selfishness is without
"When some, on the other hand, say the self will not perish, then in
the midst of all life and death there is but one identity unborn and
undying. If such is their self, then it is perfect and cannot be
perfected by deeds. The lasting, imperishable self could never be
changed. self would be lord and master, and there would be no use in
perfecting the perfect; moral aims and salvation would be unnecessary.
"But now we see the marks of joy and sorrow. Where is any constancy?
If there is no permanent self that does our deeds, then there is no
self; there is no actor behind our actions, no perceiver behind our
perception, no lord behind our deeds.
"Now attend and listen: The senses meet the object and from their
contact sensation is born. Thence results recollection. Thus, as the
sun's power through a burning-glass causes fire to appear, so
through the cognizance born of sense and object, the mind originates
and with it the ego, the thought of self, whom some Brahman teachers
call the lord. The shoot springs from the seed; the seed is not the
shoot; both are not one and the same, but successive phases in a
continuous growth. Such is the birth of animated life.
"Ye that are slaves of the self and toil in its service from morn
until night, ye that live in constant fear of birth, old age,
sickness, and death, receive the good tidings that your cruel master
exists not. Self is an error, an illusion, a dream. Open your eyes and
awaken. See things as they are and ye will be comforted. He who is
awake will no longer be afraid of nightmares. He who has recognized
the nature of the rope that seemed to be a serpent will cease to
"He who has found there is no self will let go all the lusts and
desires of egotism. The cleaving to things, covetousness, and
sensuality inherited from former existences, are the causes of the
misery and vanity in the world. Surrender the grasping disposition
of selfishness, and you will attain to that calm state of mind which
conveys perfect peace, goodness, and wisdom."
And the Buddha breathed forth this solemn utterance:

"Do not deceive, do not despise
Each other, anywhere.
Do not be angry, and do not
Secret resentment bear;
For as a mother risks her life
And watches over her child,
So boundless be your love to all,
So tender, kind and mild.

"Yea cherish good-will right and left,
For all, both soon and late,
And with no hindrance, with no stint,
From envy free and hate;
While standing, walking, sitting down,
Forever keep in mind:
The rule of life that's always best
Is to be loving-kind.

"Gifts are great, the founding of viharas is meritorious,
meditations and religious exercises pacify the heart, comprehension of
the truth leads to Nirvana, but greater than all is loving-kindness.
As the light of the moon is sixteen times stronger than the light of
all the stars, so loving-kindness is sixteen times more efficacious in
liberating the heart than all other religious accomplishments taken
together. This state of heart is the best in the world. Let a man
remain steadfast in it while he is awake, whether he is standing,
walking, sitting, or lying down."
When the Enlightened One had finished his sermon, the Magadha king
said to the Blessed One: "In former days, Lord, when I was a prince, I
cherished five wishes. I wished: O, that I might be inaugurated as a
king. This was my first wish, and it has been fulfilled. Further, I
wished: Might the Holy Buddha, the Perfect One, appear on earth
while I rule and might he come to my kingdom. This was my second
wish and it is fulfilled now. Further I wished: Might I pay my
respects to him. This was my third wish and it is fulfilled now. The
fourth wish was: Might the Blessed One preach the doctrine to me,
and this is fulfilled now.
"The greatest wish, however, was the fifth wish: Might I
understand the doctrine of the Blessed One. And this wish is fulfilled
"Glorious Lord! Most glorious is the truth preached by the
Tathagata! Our Lord, the Buddha, sets up what has been overturned;
he reveals what has been hidden; he points out the way to the wanderer
who has gone astray; he lights a lamp in the darkness so that those
who have eyes to see may see. I take my refuge in the Buddha. I take
my refuge in the Dharma. I take my refuge in the Sangha."
The Tathagata, by the exercise of his virtue and by wisdom, showed
his unlimited spiritual power. He subdued and harmonized all minds. He
made them see and accept the truth, and throughout the kingdom the
seeds of virtue were sown.


SENIYA BIMBISARA, the king, having taken his refuge in the Buddha,
invited the Tathagata to his palace, saying: "Will the Blessed One
consent to take his meal with me tomorrow together with the fraternity
of bhikkhus?" The next morning the king announced to the Blessed One
that it was time for taking food: "Thou art my most welcome guest, O
Lord of the world, come; the meal is prepared."
The Blessed One having donned his robes, took his alms-bowl and,
together with a great number of bhikkhus, entered the city of
Rajagaha. Sakka, the king of the Devas, assuming the appearance of a
young Brahman, walked in front, and said: "He who teaches self-control
with those who have learned self-control; the redeemer with those whom
he has redeemed; the Blessed One with those to whom he has given
peace, is entering Rajagaha Hail to the Buddha, our Lord! Honor to
his name and blessings to all who take refuge in him." Sakka intoned
this stanza:

"Blessed is the place in which the Buddha walks,
And blessed the ears which hear his talks;
Blessed his disciples, for they are
The tellers of his truth both near and far.

"If all could hear this truth so good
Then all men's minds would eat rich food,
And strong would grow men's brotherhood."

When the Blessed One had finished his meal, and had cleansed his
bowl and his hands, the king sat down near him and thought:
"Where may I find a place for the Blessed One to live in, not too
far from the town and not too near, suitable for going and coming,
easily accessible to all people who want to see him, a place that is
by day not too crowded and by night not exposed to noise, wholesome
and well fitted for a retired life? There is my pleasure-garden, the
bamboo grove Veluvana, fulfilling all these conditions. I shall
offer it to the brotherhood whose head is the Buddha."
The king dedicated his garden to the brotherhood, saying: "May the
Blessed One accept my gift." Then the Blessed One, having silently
shown his consent and having gladdened and edified the Magadha king by
religious discourse, rose from his seat and went away.


AT that time Sariputta and Moggallana, two Brahmans and chiefs of
the followers of Sanjaya, led a religious life. They had promised each
other: "He who first attains Nirvana shall tell the other one."
Sariputta seeing the venerable Assaji begging for alms, modestly
keeping his eyes to the ground and dignified in deportment, exclaimed:
"Truly this samana has entered the right path; I will ask him in whose
name he has retired from the world and what doctrine he professes."
Being addressed by Sariputta, Assaji replied: "I am a follower of
the Buddha, the Blessed One, but being a novice I can tell you the
substance only of the doctrine."
Said Sariputta: "Tell me, venerable monk; it is the substance I
want." And Assaji recited the stanza:

"Nothing we seek to touch or see
Can represent Eternity.
They spoil and die: then let us find
Eternal Truth within the mind."

Having heard this stanza, Sariputta obtained the pure and spotless
eye of truth and said: "Now I see clearly, whatsoever is subject to
origination is also subject to cessation. If this be the doctrine I
have reached the state to enter Nirvana which heretofore has
remained hidden from me." Sariputta went to Moggallana and told him,
and both said: "We will go to the Blessed One, that he, the Blessed
One, may be our teacher."
When the Buddha saw Sariputta and Moggallana coming from afar, he
said to his disciples, These two monks are highly auspicious." When
the two friends had taken refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the
Sangha, the Holy One said to his other disciples: "Sariputta, like the
first-born O son of a world-ruling monarch, is well able to assist the
king as his chief follower to set the wheel of the law rolling."
Now the people were annoyed. Seeing that many distinguished young
men of the kingdom of Magadha led a religious life under the direction
of the Blessed One, they became angry and murmured: "Gotama
Sakyamuni induces fathers to leave their wives and causes families
to become extinct." When they saw the bhikkhus, they reviled them,
saying: "The great Sakyamuni has come to Rajagaha subduing the minds
of men. Who will be the next to be led astray by him?"
The bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One, and the Blessed One said:
"This murmuring, O bhikkhus, will not last long. it will last seven
days. If they revile you, answer them with these words: 'It is by
preaching the truth that Tathagatas lead men. Who will murmur at the
wise? Who will blame the virtuous? Who will condemn self-control,
righteousness, and kindness?" And the Blessed One proclaimed:

"Commit no wrong, do only good,
And let your heart be pure.
This is the doctrine Buddhas teach,
And this doctrine will endure."


AT this time there was Anathapindika, a man of unmeasured wealth,
visiting Rajagaha. Being of a charitable disposition, he was called
"the supporter of orphans and the friend of the poor." Hearing that
the Buddha had come into the world and was stopping in the bamboo
grove near the city, he set out on that very night to meet the Blessed
And the Blessed One saw at once the sterling quality of
Anathapindika's heart and greeted him with words of religious comfort.
And they sat down together, and Anathapindika listened to the
sweetness of the truth preached by the Blessed One. And the Buddha
said: "The restless, busy nature of the world, this, I declare, is
at the root of pain. Attain that composure of mind which is resting in
the peace of immortality. Self is but a heap of composite qualities,
and its world is empty like a fantasy.
"Who is it that shapes our lives? Is it Isvara, a personal
creator? If Isvara be the maker, all living things should have
silently to submit to their maker's power. They would be like
vessels formed by the potter's hand; and if it were so, how would it
be possible to practice virtue? If the world had been made by Isvara
there should be no such thing as sorrow, or calamity, or evil; for
both pure and impure deeds must come from him. If not, there would
be another cause beside him, and he would not be self-existent.
Thus, thou seest, the thought of Isvara is overthrown.
"Again, it is said that the Absolute has created us. But that
which is absolute cannot be a cause. All things around us come from
a cause as the plant comes from the seed; but how can the Absolute
be the cause of all things alike? If it pervades them, then,
certainly, it does not make them.
"Again, it is said that Self is the maker. But if self is the maker,
why did it not make things pleasing? The causes of sorrow and joy
are real and touchable. How can they have been made by self?
"Again, if we adopt the argument that there is no maker, our fate is
such as it is, and there is no causation, what use would there be in
shaping our lives and adjusting means to an end? Therefore, we argue
that all things that exist are not without cause. However, neither
Isvara, nor the absolute, nor the self nor causeless chance, is the
maker, but our deeds produce results both good and evil according to
the law of causation.
"Let us, then, abandon the heresy of worshiping Isvara and of
praying to him; let us no longer lose ourselves in vain speculations
or profitless subtleties; let us surrender self and all selfishness,
and as all things are fixed by causation, let us practice good so that
good may result from our actions."
And Anathapindika said: "I see that thou art the Buddha, the Blessed
One the Tathagata, and I wish to open to the my whole mind. Having
listened to my words advise me what I shall do. My life is full of
work, and having acquired great wealth, I am surrounded with cares.
Yet I enjoy my work, and apply myself to it with all diligence. Many
people are in my employ and depend upon the success of my enterprises.
"Now, I have heard thy disciples praise the bliss of the hermit
and denounce the unrest of the world. 'The Holy One,' they say, 'has
given up his kingdom and his inheritance, and has found the path of
righteousness, thus setting an example to all the world how to
attain Nirvana.' My heart yearns to do what is right and to be a
blessing unto my fellows. Let me then ask thee, Must I give up my
wealth, my home, and my business enterprises, and, like thyself, go
into homelessness in order to attain the bliss of a religious life?"
And the Buddha replied: "The bliss of a religious life is attainable
by every one who walks in the noble eightfold path. He that cleaves to
wealth had better cast it away than allow his heart to be poisoned
by it; but he who does not cleave to wealth, and possessing riches,
uses them rightly, will be a blessing unto his fellows. It is not life
and wealth and power that enslave men, but the cleaving to life and
wealth and power. The bhikkhu who retires from the world in order to
lead a life of leisure will have no gain, for a life of indolence is
an abomination, and lack of energy is to be despised. The Dharma of
the Tathagata does not require a man to go into homelessness or to
resign the world, unless he feels called upon to do so; but the Dharma
of the Tathagata requires every man to free himself from the
illusion of self, to cleanse his heart, to give up his thirst for
pleasure, and lead a life of righteousness. And whatever men do,
whether they remain in the world as artisans, merchants, and
officers of the king, or retire from the world and devote themselves
to a life of religious meditation, let them put their whole heart into
their task; let them be diligent and energetic, and, if they are
like the lotus, which, although it grows in the water, yet remains
untouched by the water, if they struggle in life without cherishing
envy or hatred, if they live in the world not a life of self but a
life of truth, then surely joy, peace, and bliss will dwell in their


ANATHAPINDIKA rejoiced at the words of the Blessed One and said: I
dwell at Savatthi, the capital of Kosala, a land rich in produce and
enjoying peace. Pasenadi is the king of the country, and his name is
renowned among our own people and our neighbors. Now I wish to found
there a vihara which shall be a place of religious devotion for your
brotherhood, and I pray you kindly to accept it."
The Buddha saw into the heart of the supporter of orphans; and
knowing that unselfish charity was the moving cause of his offer, in
acceptance of the gift, the Blessed One said: "The charitable man is
loved by all; his friendship is prized highly; in death his heart is
at rest and full of joy, for he suffers not from repentance; he
receives the opening flower of his reward and the fruit that ripens
from it. Hard it is to understand: By giving away our food, we get
more strength, by bestowing clothing on others, we gain more beauty;
by donating abodes of purity and truth, we acquire great treasures.
"There is a proper time and a proper mode in charity; just as the
vigorous warrior goes to battle, so is the man who is able to give. He
is like an able warrior a champion strong and wise in action. Loving
and compassionate he gives with reverence and banishes all hatred,
envy, and anger.
"The charitable man has found the path of salvation. He is like
the man who plants a sapling, securing thereby the shade, the flowers,
and the fruit in future years. Even so is the result of charity,
even so is the joy of him who helps those that are in need of
assistance; even so is the great Nirvana. We reach the immortal path
only by continuous acts of kindliness and we perfect our souls by
compassion and charity."
Anathapindika invited Sariputta to accompany him on his return to
Kosala and help him in selecting a pleasant site for the vihara.


ANATHAPINDIKA, the friend of the destitute and the supporter of
orphans, having returned home, saw the garden of the heir-apparent,
Jeta, with its green groves and limpid rivulets, and thought: "This is
the place which will be most suitable as a vihara for the
brotherhood of the Blessed One." And he went to the prince and asked
leave to buy the ground. The prince was not inclined to sell the
garden, for he valued it highly. He at first refused but said at last,
"If thou canst cover it with gold, then, and for no other price, shalt
thou have it." Anathapindika rejoiced and began to spread his gold;
but Jeta said: "Spare thyself the trouble, for I will not sell." But
Anathapindika insisted. Thus they contended until they resorted to the
Meanwhile the people began to talk of the unwonted proceeding, and
the prince, hearing more of the details and knowing that Anathapindika
was not only very wealthy but also straightforward and sincere,
inquired into his plans. On hearing the name of the Buddha, the prince
became anxious to share in the foundation and he accepted only
one-half of the gold, saying: "Yours is the land, but mine are the
trees. I will give the trees as my share of this offering to the
Then Anathapindika took the land and Jeta the trees, and they placed
them in trust of Sariputta for the Buddha. After the foundations
were laid, they began to build the hall which rose loftily in due
proportions according to the directions which the Buddha had
suggested; and it was beautifully decorated with appropriate carvings.
This vihara was called Jetavana, and the friend of the orphans invited
the Lord to come to Savatthi and receive the donation. And the Blessed
One left Kapilavatthu and came to Savatthi.
While the Blessed One was entering Jetavana, Anathapindika scattered
flowers and burned incense, and as a sign of the gift he poured
water from a golden dragon decanter, saying, "This Jetavana vihara I
give for the use of the brotherhood throughout the world." The Blessed
One received the gift and replied: "May all evil influences be
overcome; may the offering promote the kingdom of righteousness and be
a permanent blessing to mankind in general, to the land of Kosala, and
especially also to the giver."
Then the king Pasenadi, hearing that the Lord had come, went in
his royal equipage to the Jetavana vihara and saluted the Blessed
One with clasped hands, saying: "'Blessed is my unworthy and obscure
kingdom that it has met with so great a fortune. For how can
calamities and dangers befall it in the presence of the Lord of the
world, the Dharmaraja, the King of Truth. Now that I have seen thy
sacred countenance, let me partake of the refreshing waters of thy
teachings. Worldly profit is fleeting and perishable, but religious
profit is eternal and inexhaustible. A worldly man, though a king,
is full of trouble, but even a common man who is holy has peace of
Knowing the tendency of the king's heart, weighed down by avarice
and love of pleasure, the Buddha seized the opportunity and said:
"Even those who, by their evil karma, have been born in low degree,
when they see a virtuous man, feel reverence for him. How much more
must an independent king, on account of merits acquired in previous
existences, when meeting a Buddha, conceive reverence for him. And now
as I briefly expound the law, let the Maharaja listen and weigh my
words, and hold fast that which I deliver!
"Our good or evil deeds follow us continually like shadows. That
which is most needed is a loving heart! Regard thy people as men do an
only son. Do not oppress them, do not destroy them; keep in due
check every member of thy body, forsake unrighteous doctrine and
walk in the straight path. Exalt not thyself by trampling down others,
but comfort and befriend the suffering. Neither ponder on kingly
dignity, nor listen to the smooth words of flatterers.
There is no profit in vexing oneself by austerities, but meditate on
the Buddha and weigh his righteous law. We are encompassed on all
sides by the rocks of birth, old age, disease, and death, and only
by considering and practicing the true law can we escape from this
sorrow-piled mountain. What profit, then, in practicing iniquity?
"All who are wise spurn the pleasures of the body. They loathe
lust and seek to promote their spiritual existence. When a tree is
burning with fierce flames, how can the birds congregate therein?
Truth cannot dwell where passion lives. He who does not know this,
though he be a learned man and be praised by others as a sage, is
beclouded with ignorance. To him who has this knowledge true wisdom
dawns, and he will beware of hankering after pleasure. To acquire this
state of mind, wisdom is the one thing needful. To neglect wisdom will
lead to failure in life. The teachings of all religions should
center here, for without wisdom there is no reason.
"This truth is not for the hermit alone; it concerns every human
being, priest and layman alike. There is no distinction between the
monk who has taken the vows, and the man of the world living with
his family. There are hermits who fall into perdition, and there are
humble householders who mount to the rank of rishis. Hankering after
pleasure is a danger common to all; it carries away the world. He
who is involved in its eddies finds no escape. But wisdom is the handy
boat, reflection is the rudder. The slogan of religion calls you to
overcome the assaults of Mara, the enemy.
"Since it is impossible to escape the result of our deeds, let us
practice good works. Let us guard our thoughts that we do no evil, for
as we sow so shall we reap. There are ways from light into darkness
and from darkness into light. There are ways, also, from the gloom
into deeper darkness, and from the dawn into brighter light. The
wise man will use the light he has to receive more light. He will
constantly advance in the knowledge of truth.
"Exhibit true superiority by virtuous conduct and the exercise of
reason; meditate deeply on the vanity of earthly things, and
understand the fickleness of life. Elevate the mind, and seek
sincere faith with firm purpose; transgress not the rules of kingly
conduct, and let your happiness depend, not upon external things,
but upon your own mind. Thus you will lay up a good name for distant
ages and will secure the favor of the Tathagata."
The king listened with reverence and remembered all the words of the
Buddha in his heart.


WHEN the Buddha was staying at the Veluvana, the bamboo grove at
Rajagaha, he addressed the brethren thus: "Whether Buddhas arise, O
priests, or whether Buddhas do not arise, it remains a fact and the
fixed and necessary constitution of being that all conformations are
transitory. This fact a Buddha discovers and masters, and when he
has discovered and mastered it, he announces, publishes, proclaims,
discloses, minutely explains and makes it clear that all conformations
are transitory.
"Whether Buddhas arise, O priests, or whether Buddhas do not
arise, it remains a fact and a fixed and necessary constitution of
being, that all conformations are suffering. This fact a Buddha
discovers and masters, and when he has discovered and mastered it,
he announces, publishes, proclaims, discloses, minutely explains and
makes it clear that all conformations are suffering.
"Whether Buddhas arise, O priests, or whether Buddhas do not
arise, it remains a fact and a fixed and necessary constitution of
being, that all conformations are lacking a self. This fact a Buddha
discovers and masters, and when he has discovered and mastered it,
he announces, teaches, publishes, proclaims, discloses, minutely
explains and makes it clear that all conformations are lacking a
And on another occasion the Blessed One dwelt at Savatthi in the
Jetavana, the garden of Anathapindika. At that time the Blessed One
edified, aroused, quickened and gladdened the monks with a religious
discourse on the subject of Nirvana. And these monks grasping the
meaning, thinking it out, and accepting with their hearts the whole
doctrine, listened attentively. But there was one brother who had some
doubt left in his heart. He arose and clasping his hands made the
request: "May I be permitted to ask a question?" When permission was
granted he spoke as follows:
"The Buddha teaches that all conformations are transient, that all
conformations are subject to sorrow, that all conformations are
lacking a self. How then can there be Nirvana, a state of eternal
And the Blessed One, this connection, on that occasion, breathed
forth this solemn utterance: "There is, O monks, a state where there
is neither earth, nor water, nor heat, nor air; neither infinity of
space nor infinity of consciousness, nor nothingness, nor perception
nor non-perception; neither this world nor that world, neither sun nor
moon. It is the uncreate. That O monks, I term neither coming nor
going nor standing; neither death nor birth. It is without
stability, without change; it is the eternal which never originates
and never passes away. There is the end of sorrow.
"It is hard to realize the essential, the truth is not easily
perceived; desire is mastered by him who knows, and to him who sees
aright all things are naught. There is, O monks, an unborn,
unoriginated, uncreated, unformed. Were there not, O monks, this
unborn, unoriginated, uncreated, unformed, there would be no escape
from the world of the born, originated, created, formed. Since, O
monks, there is an unborn, unoriginated, uncreated and unformed,
therefore is there an escape from the born, originated, created,


THE Buddha's name became famous over all India and Suddhodana, his
father, sent word to him saying: "I am growing old and wish to see
my son before I die. Others have had the benefit of his doctrine,
but not his father nor his relatives." And the messenger said: "O
world-honored Tathagata, thy father looks for thy coming as the lily
longs for the rising of the sun."
The Blessed One consented to the request of his father and set out
on his journey to Kapilavatthu. Soon the tidings spread in the
native country of the Buddha: "Prince Siddhattha, who wandered forth
from home into homelessness to obtain enlightenment, having attained
his purpose, is coming back."
Suddhodana went out with his relatives and ministers to meet the
prince. When the king saw Siddhattha, his son, from afar, he was
struck with his beauty and dignity, and he rejoiced in his heart,
but his mouth found no words to utter. This, indeed, was his son;
these were the features of Siddhattha. How near was the great samana
to his heart, and yet what a distance lay between them! That noble
muni was no longer Siddhattha, his son; he was the Buddha, the Blessed
One, the Holy One, Lord of truth, and teacher of mankind. Suddhodana
the king, considering the religious dignity of his son, descended from
his chariot and after saluting his son said: "It is now seven years
since I have seen thee. How I have longed for this moment!"
Then the Sakyamuni took a seat opposite his father, and the king
gazed eagerly at his son. He longed to call him by his name, but he
dared not. "Siddhattha," he exclaimed silently in his heart,
"Siddhattha, come back to thine aged father and be his son again!" But
seeing the determination of his son, he suppressed his sentiments,
and, desolation overcame him. Thus the king sat face to face with
his son, rejoicing in his sadness and sad in his rejoicing. Well might
he be proud of his son, but his pride broke down at the idea that
his great son would never be his heir.
"I would offer thee my kingdom," said, the king, "but if I did, thou
wouldst account it but as ashes."
And the Buddha said: "I know that the king's heart is full of love
and that for his son's sake he feels deep grief. But let the ties of
love that bind him to the son whom he lost embrace with equal kindness
all his fellow-beings, and he will receive in his place a greater
one than Siddhattha; he will receive the Buddha, the teacher of truth,
the preacher of righteousness, and the peace of Nirvana will enter
into his heart."
Suddhodana trembled with joy when he heard the melodious words of
his son, the Buddha, and clasping his hands, exclaimed with tears in
his eyes: "Wonderful in this change! The overwhelming sorrow has
passed away. At first my sorrowing heart was heavy, but now I reap the
fruit of thy great renunciation. It was right that, moved by thy
mighty sympathy, thou shouldst reject the pleasures of royal power and
achieve thy noble purpose in religious devotion. Now that thou hast
found the path, thou canst preach the law of immortality to all the
world that yearns for deliverance." The king returned to the palace,
while the Buddha remained in the grove before the city.


ON next morning the Buddha took his bowl and set out to beg his
food. And the news spread abroad: "Prince Siddhattha is going from
house to house to receive alms in the city where he used to ride in
a chariot attended by his retinue. His robe is like a red clod, and he
holds in his hand an earthen bowl."
On hearing the strange rumor, the king went forth in great haste and
when he met his son he exclaimed: "Why dost thou thus disgrace me?
Knowest thou not that I can easily supply thee and thy bhikkhus with
food?" And the Buddha replied: "It is the custom of my race."
But the king said: "how can this be? Thou art descended from
kings, and not one of them ever begged for food."
"O great king," rejoined the Buddha thou and thy race may claim
descent from kings; my descent is from the Buddhas of old. They,
begging their food, lived on alms." The king made no reply, and the
Blessed One continued: "It is customary, O king, when one has found
a hidden treasure, for him to make an offering of the most precious
jewel to his father. Suffer me, therefore, to open this treasure of
mine which is the Dharma, and accept from me this gem": And the
Blessed One recited the following stanza:

"Arise from dreams and delusions,
Awaken with open mind.
Seek only Truth. Where you find it,
Peace also you will find."

Then the king conducted the prince into the palace, and the
ministers and all the members of the royal family greeted him with
great reverence, but Yasodhara, the mother of Rahula, did not make her
appearance. The king sent for Yasodhara, but she replied: "Surely,
if I am deserving of any regard, Siddhattha will come and see me."
The Blessed One, having greeted all his relatives and friends,
asked: "Where is Yasodhara?" And on being informed that she had
refused to come, he rose straightway and went to her apartments.
"I am free, the Blessed One said to his disciples, Sari putta and
Moggallana, whom he had bidden to accompany him to the princess's
chamber; "the princess, however, is not as yet free. Not having seen
me for a long time, she is exceedingly sorrowful. Unless her grief
be allowed its course her heart will cleave. Should she touch the
Tathagata, the Holy One, ye must not prevent her."
Yasodhara sat in her room, dressed in mean garments, and her hair
cut. When Prince Siddhattha entered, she was, from the abundance of
her affection, like an overflowing vessel, unable to contain her love.
Forgetting that the man whom she loved was the Buddha, the Lord of the
world, the preacher of truth, she held him by his feet and wept
Remembering, however, that Suddhodana was present, she felt ashamed,
and rising, seated herself reverently at a little distance.
The king apologized for the princess, saying: "This arises from
her deep affection, and is more than a temporary emotion. During the
seven years that she has lost her husband, when she heard that
Siddhattha had shaved his head, she did likewise; when she heard
that he had left off the use of perfumes and ornaments, she also
refused their use. Like her husband she had eaten at appointed times
from an earthen bowl only. Like him she had renounced high beds with
splendid coverings, and when other princes asked her in marriage,
she replied that she was still his. Therefore, grant her forgiveness."

And the Blessed One spoke kindly to Yasodhara, telling of her
great merits inherited from former lives. She had indeed been again
and again of great assistance to him. Her purity, her gentleness,
her devotion had been invaluable to the Bodhisattva when he aspired to
attain enlightenment, the highest aim of mankind. And so holy had
she been that she desired to become the wife of a Buddha. This,
then, is her karma, and it is the result of great merits. Her grief
has been unspeakable, but the consciousness of the glory that
surrounds her spiritual inheritance increased by her noble attitude
during her life, will be a balm that will miraculously transform all
sorrows into heavenly joy.


MANY people in Kapilavatthu believed in the Tathagata and took
refuge in his doctrine, among them Nanda Sidhattha's half-brother, the
son of Pajapati; Devadatta, his cousin and brother-in-law; Upali the
barber; and Anuruddha the philosopher. Some years later Ananda,
another cousin of the Blessed One, also joined the Sangha.
Ananda was a man after the heart of the Blessed One; he was his most
beloved disciple, profound in comprehension and gentle in spirit.
And Ananda remained always near the Blessed Master of truth, until
death parted them.
On the seventh day after the Buddha's arrival in Kapilavatthu,
Yasodhara dressed Rahula, now seven years old, in all the splendor
of a prince and said to him: "This holy man, whose appearance is so
glorious that he looks like the great Brahma, is thy father. He
possesses four great mines of wealth which I have not yet seen. Go
to him and entreat him to put thee in possession of them, for the
son ought to inherit the property of his father."
Rahula replied: "I know of no father but the king. Who is my
father?" The princess took the boy in her arms and from the window she
pointed out to him the Buddha, who happened to be near the palace,
partaking of food.
Rahula then went to the Buddha, and looking up into his face said
without fear and with much affection: "My father!" And standing near
him, he added: "O samana, even thy shadow is a place of bliss!"
When the Tathagata had finished his repast, he gave blessings and
went away from the palace, but Rahula followed and asked his father
for his inheritance. No one prevented the boy, nor did the Blessed One
Then the Blessed One turned to Sariputta, saying: "My son asks for
his inheritance. I cannot give him perishable treasures that will
bring cares and sorrows, but I can give him the inheritance of a
holy life, which is a treasure that will not perish."
Addressing Rahula with earnestness, the Blessed One said: "Gold
and silver and jewels are not in my possession. But if thou art
willing to receive spiritual treasures, and art strong enough to carry
them and to keep them, I shall give thee the four truths which will
teach thee the eightfold path of righteousness. Dost thou desire to be
admitted to the brotherhood of those who devote their life to the
culture of the heart seeking for the highest bliss attainable?"
Rahula replied with firmness: "I do. I want to join the
brotherhood of the Buddha."
When the king heard that Rahula had joined the brotherhood of
bhikkhus he was grieved. He had lost Siddhattha and Nanda, his sons,
and Devadatta, his nephew. But now that his grandson had been taken
from him, he went to the Blessed One and spoke to him. And the Blessed
One promised that from that time forward he would not ordain any minor
without the consent of his parents or guardians.


LONG before the Blessed One had attained enlightenment,
self-mortification had been the custom among those who earnestly
sought for salvation. Deliverance of the soul from all the necessities
of life and finally from the body itself, they regarded as the aim
of religion. Thus, they avoided everything that might be a luxury in
food, shelter, and clothing, and lived like the beasts in the woods.
Some went naked, while others wore the rags cast away upon
cemeteries or dung-heaps.
When the Blessed One retired from the world, he recognized at once
the error of the naked ascetics, and, considering the indecency of
their habit, clad himself in cast-off rags.
Having attained enlightenment and rejected all unnecessary
self-mortifications, the Blessed One and his bhikkhus continued for
a long time to wear the cast-off rags of cemeteries and dung-heaps.
Then it happened that the bhikkhus were visited with diseases of all
kinds, and the Blessed One permitted and explicitly ordered the use of
medicines, and among them he even enjoined, whenever needed, the use
of unguents. One of the brethren suffered from a sore on his foot, and
the Blessed One enjoined the bhikkhus to wear foot-coverings.
Now it happened that a disease befell the body of the Blessed One
himself, and Ananda went to Jivaka, physician to Bimbisara, the
king. And Jivaka, a faithful believer in the Holy One, ministered unto
the Blessed One with medicines and baths until the body of the Blessed
One was completely restored.
At that time, Pajjota, king of Ujjeni, was suffering from
jaundice, and Jivaka, the physician to king Bimbisara, was
consulted. When King Pajjota had been restored to health, he sent to
Jivaka a suit of the most excellent cloth. And Jivaka said to himself:
"This suit is made of the best cloth, and nobody is worthy to
receive it but the Blessed One, the perfect and holy Buddha, or the
Magadha king, Senija Bimbisara."
Then Jivaka took that suit and went to the place where the Blessed
One was; having approached him, and having respectfully saluted the
Blessed One, he sat down near him and said: "Lord, I have a boon to
ask of the Blessed One." The Buddha replied: "The Tathagatas,
Jivaka, do not grant boons before they know what they are."
Jivaka said: "Lord, it is a proper and unobjectionable request."
"Speak, Jivaka, said the Blessed One.
"Lord of the world, the Blessed One wears only robes made of rags
taken from a dung-heap or a cemetery, and so also does the brotherhood
of bhikkhus. Now, Lord, this suit has been sent to me by King Pajjota,
which is the best and most excellent, and the finest and the most
precious, and the noblest that can be found. Lord of the world, may
the Blessed One accept from me this suit, and may he allow the
brotherhood of bhikkhus to wear lay robes."
The Blessed One accepted the suit, and after having delivered a
religious discourse, he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Henceforth ye
shall be at liberty to wear either cast-off rags or lay robes. Whether
ye are pleased with the one or with the other, I will approve of it."
When the people at Rajagaha heard, The Blessed One has allowed the
bhikkhus to wear lay robes, those who were willing to bestow gifts
became glad. And in one day many thousands of robes were presented
at Rajagaha to the bhikkhus.


WHEN Suddhodana had grown old, he fell sick and sent for his son
to come and see him once more before he died; and the Blessed One came
and stayed at the sick-bed, and Suddhodana, having attained perfect
enlightenment, died in the arms of the Blessed One.
And it is said that the Blessed One, for the sake of preaching to
his mother Maya-devi, ascended to heaven and dwelt with the devas.
Having concluded his pious mission, he returned to the earth and
went about again, converting those who listened to his teachings.


YASODHARA had three times requested of the Buddha that she might
be admitted to the Sangha, but her wish had not been granted. Now
Pajapati, the foster-mother of the Blessed One, in the company of
Yasodhara, and many other women, went to the Tathagata entreating
him earnestly to let them take the vows and be ordained as disciples.
The Blessed One, foreseeing the danger that lurked in admitting
women to the Sangha, protested that while the good religion ought
surely to last a thousand years it would, when women joined it, likely
decay after five hundred years; but observing the zeal of Pajapati and
Yasodhara for leading a religious life he could no longer resist and
assented to have them admitted as his disciples.
Then the venerable Ananda addressed the Blessed One thus: "Are women
competent, venerable Lord, if they retire from household life to the
homeless state, under the doctrine and discipline announced by the
Tathagata, to attain to the fruit of conversion, to attain to a
release from a wearisome repetition of rebirths, to attain to
saintship?" The Blessed One declared: "Women are competent, Ananda, if
they retire from household life to the homeless state, under the
doctrine and discipline announced by the Tathagata, to attain to the
fruit of conversion, to attain to a release from a wearisome
repetition of rebirths, to attain to saintship.
"Consider, Ananda, how great a benefactress Pajapati has been. She
is the sister of the mother of the Blessed One, and as foster-mother
and nurse, reared the Blessed One after the death of his mother. So,
Ananda, women may retire from household life to the homeless state,
under the doctrine and discipline announced by the Tathagata."
Pajapati was the first woman to become a disciple of the Buddha
and to receive the ordination as a bhikkhuni.


THE bhikkhus came to the Blessed One and asked him: "O Tathagata,
our Lord and Master, what conduct toward women dost thou prescribe
to the samanas who have left the world?"
The Blessed One said: "Guard against looking on a woman. If ye see a
woman, let it be as though ye saw her not, and have no conversation
with her. If, after all, ye must speak with her, let it be with a pure
heart, and think to yourself, 'I as a samana will live in this
sinful world as the spotless leaf of the lotus, unsoiled by the mud in
which it grows.'
"If the woman be old, regard her as your mother, if young, as your
sister, if very young, as your child. The samana who looks on a
woman as a woman, or touches her as a woman, has broken his vow and is
no longer a disciple of the Tathagata. The power of lust is great with
men, and is to be feared withal; take then the bow of earnest
perseverance, and the sharp arrow-points of wisdom. Cover your heads
with the helmet of right thought, and fight with fixed resolve against
the five desires. Lust beclouds a man's heart, when it is confused
with woman's beauty, and the mind is dazed.
"Better far with red-hot irons bore out both your eyes, than
encourage in yourself sensual thoughts, or look upon a woman's form
with lustful desires. Better fall into the fierce tiger's mouth, or
under the sharp knife of the executioner, than dwell with a woman
and excite in yourself lustful thoughts.
"A woman of the world is anxious to exhibit her form and shape,
whether walking, standing, sitting, or sleeping. Even when represented
as a picture, she desires to captivate with the charms of her
beauty, and thus to rob men of their steadfast heart. How then ought
ye to guard yourselves? By regarding her tears and her smiles as
enemies, her stooping form, her hanging arms, and her disentangled
hair as toils designed to entrap man's heart. Therefore, I say,
restrain the heart, give it no unbridled license."


VISAKHA, a wealthy woman in Savatthi who had many children and
grandchildren, had given to the order the Pubbarama or Eastern Garden,
and was the first in Northern Kosala to become a matron of the lay
When the Blessed One stayed at Savatthi, Visakha went up to the
place where the Blessed One was, and tendered him an invitation to
take his meal at her house, which the Blessed One accepted. And a
heavy rain fell during the night and the next morning; and the
bhikkhus doffed their robes to keep them dry and let the rain fall
upon their bodies.
When on the next day the Blessed One had finished his meal, she took
her seat at his side and spoke thus: "Eight are the boons, Lord, which
I beg of the Blessed One."
Said the Blessed One: "The Tathagatas, O Visakha, grant no boons
until they know what they are." Visakha replied: "Befitting, Lord, and
unobjectionable are the boons I ask."
Having received permission to make known her requests, Visakha said:
"I desire, Lord, through all my life long to bestow robes for the
rainy season on the Sangha, and food for incoming bhikkhus, and food
for outgoing bhikkhus, and food for the sick, and food for those who
wait upon the sick, and medicine for the sick and a constant supply of
rice milk for the Sangha, and bathing robes for the bhikkhunis, the
sisters." Said the Buddha: "But what circumstance is it, O Visakha,
that thou hast in view in asking these eight boons of the Tathagata?"
Visakha replied: "I gave command, Lord, to my maidservant, saying,
'Go, and announce to the brotherhood that the meal is ready.' And
the maid went, but when she came to the vihara, she observed that
the bhikkhus had doffed their robes while it was raining, and she
thought: 'These are not bhikkhus, but naked ascetics letting the
rain fall on them. So she returned to me and reported accordingly, and
I had to send her a second time. Impure, Lord, is nakedness, and
revolting. It was this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in
desiring to provide the Sangha my life long with special garments
for use in the rainy season.
"As to my second wish, Lord, an incoming bhikkhu, not being able
to take the direct roads, and not knowing the place where food can
be procured, comes on his way tired out by seeking for alms. It was
this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to provide the
Sangha my life long with food for incoming bhikkhus. Thirdly, Lord, an
outgoing bhikkhu, while seeking about for alms, may be left behind, or
may arrive too late at the place whither he desires to go, and will
set out on the road in weariness.
"Fourthly, Lord, if a sick bhikkhu does not obtain suitable food,
his sickness may increase upon him, and he may die. Fifthly, Lord, a
bhikkhu who is waiting upon the sick will lose his opportunity of
going out to seek food for himself. Sixthly, Lord, if a sick bhikkhu
does not obtain suitable medicines, his sickness may increase upon
him, and he may die.
"Seventhly, Lord, I have heard that the Blessed One has praised
rice-milk, because it gives readiness of mind, dispels hunger and
thirst; it is wholesome for the healthy as nourishment, and for the
sick as a medicine. Therefore I desire to provide the Sangha my life
long with a constant supply of rice-milk.
"Finally, Lord, the bhikkhunis are in the habit of bathing in the
river Achiravati with the courtesans, at the same landing-place, and
naked. And the courtesans, Lord, ridicule the bhikkhunis, saying,
'What is the good, ladies, of your maintaining chastity when you are
young? When you are old, maintain chastity then; thus will you
obtain both worldly pleasure and religious consolation.' Impure, Lord,
is nakedness for a woman, disgusting, and revolting. These are the
circumstances, Lord, that I had in view."
The Blessed One said: "But what was the advantage you had in view
for yourself, O Visakha, in asking the eight boons of the Tathagatha?"
Visakha replied: "Bhikkhus who have spent the rainy seasons in
various places will come, Lord, to Savatthi to visit the Blessed
One. And on coming to the Blessed One they will ask, saying: 'Such and
such a bhikkhu, Lord, has died. What, now, is his destiny?' Then
will the Blessed One explain that he has attained the fruits of
conversion; that he has attained arahatship or has entered Nirvana, as
the case may be.
"And I, going up to them, will ask, "Was that brother, Sirs, one
of those who had formerly been at Savatthi?' If reply to me, He has
formerly been at Savatthi then shall I arrive at the conclusion, For a
certainty did that brother enjoy either the robes for the rainy
season, or the food for the incoming bhikkhus, or the food for the
outgoing bhikkhus, or the food for the sick, or the food for those
that wait upon the sick, or the medicine for the sick, or the constant
supply of rice-milk.'
"Then will gladness spring up within me; thus gladdened, joy will
come to me; and so rejoicing all my mind will be at peace. Being
thus at peace I shall experience a blissful feeling of content; and in
that bliss my heart will be at rest. That will be to me an exercise of
my moral sense, an exercise of my moral powers, an exercise of the
seven kinds of wisdom! This Lord, was the advantage I had in view
for myself in asking those eight boons of the Blessed One."
The Blessed One said: "It is well, it is well, Visakha. Thou hast
done well in asking these eight boons of the Tathagata with such
advantages in view. Charity bestowed upon those who are worthy of it
is like good seed sown on a good soil that yields an abundance of
fruits. But alms given to those who are yet under the tyrannical
yoke of the passions are like seed deposited in a bad soil. The
passions of the receiver of the alms choke, as it were, the growth
of merits." And the Blessed One gave this thanks to Visakha:

"O noble woman of an upright life,
Disciple of the Blessed One, thou givest
Unstintedly in purity of heart.

"Thou spreadest joy, assuagest pain,
And verily thy gift will be a blessing
As well to many others as to thee."


WHEN Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, was advanced in years,
he retired from the world and led a religious life. He observed that
there were Brahmanical sects in Rajagaha keeping sacred certain
days, and the people went to their meeting-houses and listened to
their sermons. Concerning the need of keeping regular days for
retirement from worldly labors and religious instruction, the king
went to the Blessed One and said: "The Parivrajaka, who belong. to the
Titthiya school, prosper and gain adherents because they keep the
eighth day and also the fourteenth or fifteenth day of each
half-month. Would it not be advisable for the reverend brethren of the
Sangha also to assemble on days duly appointed for that purpose?"
The Blessed One commanded the bhikkhus to assemble on the eighth day
and also on the fourteenth or fifteenth day of each half-month, and to
devote these days to religious exercises.
A bhikkhu duly appointed should address the congregation and expound
the Dharma. He should exhort the people to walk in the eightfold
path of righteousness; he should comfort them in the vicissitudes of
life and gladden them with the bliss of the fruit of good deeds.
Thus the brethren should keep the Uposatha. Now the bhikkhus, in
obedience to the rule laid down by the Blessed One, assembled in the
vihara on the day appointed, and the people went to hear the Dharma,
but they were greatly disappointed, for the bhikkhus remained silent
and delivered no discourse.
When the Blessed One heard of it, he ordered the bhikkhus to
recite the Patimokkha, which is a ceremony of disburdening the
conscience; and he commanded them to make confession of their
trespasses so as to receive the absolution of the order. A fault, if
there be one, should be confessed by the bhikkhu who remembers it
and desires to be cleansed, for a fault, when confessed, shall be
light on him.
And the Blessed One said: "The Patimokkha must be recited in this
way: Let a competent and venerable bhikkhu make the following
proclamation to the Sangha: "May the Sangha hear me Today is Uposatha,
the eighth, or the fourteenth or fifteenth day of the half-month. If
the Sangha is ready, let the Sangha hold the Uposatha service and
recite the Patimokkha. I will recite the Patimokkha.' And the bhikkhus
shall reply: 'We hear it well and we concentrate well our minds on it,
all of us.' Then the officiating bhikkhu shall continue: 'Let him
who has committed an offense confess it; if there be no offense, let
all remain silent; from your being silent I shall understand that
the reverend brethren are free from offenses. As a single person who
has been asked a question answers it, so also, if before an assembly
like this a question is solemnly proclaimed three times, an answer
is expected: if a bhikkhu, after a threefold proclamation, does not
confess an existing offense which he remembers, he commits an
intentional falsehood. Now, reverend brethren, an intentional
falsehood has been declared an impediment by the Blessed One.
Therefore, if an offense has been committed by a bhikkhu who remembers
it and desires to become pure, the offense should be confessed by
the bhikkhu; and when it has been confessed, it is treated duly.'"


WHILE the Blessed One dwelt at Kosambi, a certain bhikkhu was
accused of having committed an offense, and, as he refused to
acknowledge it, the brotherhood pronounced against him the sentence of
Now, that bhikkhu was erudite. He knew the Dharma, had studied the
rules of the order, and was wise, learned, intelligent, modest,
conscientious, and ready to submit himself to discipline. And he
went to his companions and friends among the bhikkhus, saying: "This
is no offense, friends; this is no reason for a sentence of expulsion.
I am not guilty. The verdict improper and invalid. Therefore I
consider myself still as a member of the order. May the venerable
brethren assist me in maintaining my right."
Those who sided with the expelled brother went to the bhikkhus who
had pronounced the sentence, saying: "This is no offense"; while the
bhikkhus who had pronounced the sentence replied: "This is an
offense." Thus altercations and quarrels arose, and the Sangha was
divided into two parties, reviling and slandering each other.
All these happenings were reported to the Blessed One. Then the
Blessed One went to the place where the bhikkhus were who had
pronounced the sentence of expulsion, and said to them: "Do not think,
O bhikkhus, that you are to pronounce expulsion against a bhikkhu,
whatever be the facts of the case, simply by saying: 'It occurs to
us that it is so, and therefore we are pleased to proceed thus against
our brother.' Let those bhikkhus who frivolously pronounce a
sentence against a brother who knows the Dharma and the rules of the
order, who is learned, wise, intelligent, modest, conscientious, and
ready to submit himself to discipline, stand in awe of causing
divisions. They must not pronounce a sentence of expulsion against a
brother merely because he refuses to see his offense."
Then the Blessed One rose and went to the brethren who sided with
the expelled brother and said to them: "Do not think, O bhikkhus, that
if you have given offense you need not atone for it, thinking: 'We are
without offense.' When a bhikkhu has committed an offense, which he
considers no offense while the brotherhood consider him guilty, he
should think: 'These brethren know the Dharma and the rules of the
order; they are learned, wise, intelligent, modest, conscientious, and
ready to submit themselves to discipline; it is impossible that they
should on my account act with selfishness or in malice or in
delusion or in fear.' Let him stand in awe of causing divisions, and
rather acknowledge his offense on the authority of his brethren."
Both parties continued to keep Uposatha and perform official acts
independently of one another; and when their doings were related to
the Blessed One, he ruled that the keeping of Uposatha and the
performance of official acts were lawful, unobjectionable, and valid
for both parties. For he said: "The bhikkhus who side with the
expelled brother form a different communion from those who
pronounced the sentence. There are venerable brethren in both parties.
As they do not agree, let them keep Uposatha and perform official acts
And the Blessed One reprimanded the quarrelsome bhikkhus, saying
to them: "Loud is the voice which worldings make; but how can they
be blamed when divisions arise also in the Sangha? Hatred is not
appeased in those who think: 'He has reviled me, he has wronged me, he
has injured me.' For not by hatred is hatred appeased. Hatred is
appeased by not-hatred. This is an eternal law.
"There are some who do not know the need of self-restraint; if
they are quarrelsome we may excuse their behavior. But those who
know better, should learn to live in concord. If a man finds a wise
friend who lives righteously and is constant in his character, he
may live with him, overcoming all dangers, happy and mindful.
"But if he finds not a friend who lives righteously and is
constant in his character, let him rather walk alone, like a king
who leaves his empire and the cares of government behind him to lead a
life of retirement like a lonely elephant in the forest. With fools
there is no companionship. Rather than to live with men who are
selfish, vain, quarrelsome, and obstinate let a man walk alone."
And the Blessed One thought to himself: "It is no easy task to
instruct these headstrong and infatuate fools." And he rose from his
seat and went away.


WHILST the dispute between the parties was not yet settled, the
Blessed One left Kosambi, and wandering from place to place he came at
last to Savatthi. In the absence of the Blessed One the quarrels
grew worse, so that the lay devotees of Kosambi became annoyed and
they said: "These quarrelsome monks are a great nuisance and will
bring upon us misfortune. Worried by their altercations the Blessed
One is gone, and has selected another abode for his residence. Let us,
therefore, neither salute the bhikkhus nor support them. They are
not worthy of wearing yellow robes, and must either propitiate the
Blessed One, or return to the world."
And the bhikkhus of Kosambi, when no longer honored and no longer
supported by the lay devotees, began to repent and said: "Let us go to
the Blessed One and let him settle the question of our
disagreement." Both parties went to Savatthi to the Blessed One. And
the venerable Sariputta, having heard of their arrival, addressed
the Blessed One and said: "These contentious, disputatious, and
quarrelsome bhikkhus of Kosambi, the authors of dissensions, have come
to Savatthi. How am I to behave, O Lord, toward those bhikkhus."
"Do not reprove them, Sariputta, said the Blessed One, "For harsh
words do not serve as a remedy and are pleasant to no one. Assign
separate dwelling-places to each party and treat them with impartial
justice. Listen with patience to both parties. He alone who weighs
both sides is called a muni. When both parties have presented their
case, let the Sangha come to an agreement and declare the
re-establishment of concord."
Pajapati, the matron, asked the Blessed One for advice, and the
Blessed One said: "Let both parties enjoy the gifts of lay members, be
they robes or food, as they may need, and let no one receive
preference over any other."
The venerable Upali, having approached the Blessed One, asked
concerning the re-establishment of peace in the Sangha: "Would it be
right, O Lord, said he, that the Sangha, to avoid further
disputations, should declare the restoration of concord without
inquiring into the matter of the quarrel?"
The Blessed One said: "If the Sangha declares the reestablishment of
concord without having inquired into the matter, the declaration is
neither right nor lawful. There are two ways of re-establishing
concord; one is in the letter, and the other one is in the spirit
and in the letter.
"If the Sangha declares the re-establishment of concord without
having inquired into the matter, the peace is concluded in the
letter only. But if the Sangha, having inquired into the matter and
having gone to the bottom of it, decides to declare the
re-establishment of concord, the peace is concluded in the spirit
and also in the letter. The concord re-established in the spirit and
in the letter is alone right and lawful."
And the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus and told them the story
of Prince Dighavu, the Long-lived. He said: "In former times, there
lived at Benares a powerful king whose name was Brahmadatta of Kasi;
and he went to war against Dighiti, the Long-suffering, a king of
Kosala, for he thought, The kingdom of Kosala is small and Dighiti
will not be able to resist my armies." And Dighiti, seeing that
resistance was impossible against the great host of the king of
Kasi, fled leaving his little kingdom in the hands of Brahmadatta; and
having wandered from place to place, he came at last to Benares, and
lived there with his consort in a potter's dwelling outside the town.
"The queen bore him a son and they called him Dighavu. When
Dighavu had grown up, the king thought to himself: 'King Brahmadatta
has done us great harm, and he is fearing our revenge; he will seek to
kill us. Should he find us he will slay all three of us.' And he
sent his son away, and Dighavu having received a good education from
his father, applied himself diligently to learn all arts, becoming
very skillful and wise.
"At that time the barber of King Dighiti dwelt at Benares, and he
saw the king, his former master, and being of an avaricious nature,
betrayed him to King Brahmadatta. When Brahmadatta, the king of
Kasi, heard that the fugitive king of Kosala and his queen, unknown
and in disguise, were living a quiet life in a potter's dwelling, he
ordered them to be bound and executed; and the sheriff to whom the
order was given seized King Dighiti and led him to the place of
"While the captive king was being led through the streets of Benares
he saw his son who had returned to visit his parents, and, careful not
to betray the presence of his son, yet anxious to communicate to him
his last advice, he cried: 'O Dighavu, my son! Be not far-sighted,
be not near-sighted, for not by hatred is hatred appeased; hatred is
appeased by not-hatred only.'
"The king and queen of Kosala were executed, but Dighavu their son
bought strong wine and made the guards drunk. When the night arrived
he laid the bodies of his parents upon a funeral pyre and burned
them with all honors and religious rites. When King Brahmadatta
heard of it, he became afraid, for he thought, Dighavu, the son of
King Dighiti, is a wise youth and he will take revenge for the death
of his parents. If he espies a favorable opportunity, he will
assassinate me.'
"Young Dighavu went to the forest and wept to his heart's content.
Then he wiped his tears and returned to Benares. Hearing that
assistants were wanted in the royal elephants' stable, he offered
his services and was engaged by the master of the elephants. And it
happened that the king heard a sweet voice ringing through the night
and singing to the lute a beautiful song that gladdened his heart. And
having inquired among his attendants who the singer might be, was told
that the master of the elephants had in his service a young man of
great accomplishments, and beloved by all his comrades. They said He
is wont to sing to the lute, and he must have been the singer that
gladdened the heart of the king.'
"The king summoned the young man before him and, being much
pleased with Dighavu, gave him employment in the royal castle.
Observing how wisely the youth acted, how modest he was and yet
punctilious in the performance of his work, the king very soon gave
him a position of trust. Now it came to pass that the king went
hunting and became separated from his retinue, young Dighavu alone
remaining with him. And the king worn out from the hunt laid his
head in the lap of young Dighavu and slept.
"Dighavu thought: 'People will forgive great wrongs which they
have suffered, but they will never be at ease about the wrong which
they themselves have done. They will persecute their victims to the
bitter end. This King Brahmadatta has done us great injury; he
robbed us of our kingdom and slew my father and my mother. He is now
in my power. Thinking thus he unsheathed his sword. Then Dighavu
thought of the last words of his father. 'Be not far-sighted, be not
near-sighted. For not by hatred is hatred appeased. Hatred is appeased
by not-hatred alone.-Thinking thus, he put his sword back into the
"The king became restless in his sleep and he awoke, and when the
youth asked, 'Why art thou frightened, O king?' he replied: 'My
sleep is always restless because I often dream that young Dighavu is
coming upon me with his sword. While I lay here with my head in thy
lap I dreamed the dreadful dream again; and I awoke full of terror and
alarm.' Then the youth, laying his left hand upon the defenseless
king's head and with his right hand drawing his sword, said: 'I am
Dighavu, the son of King Dighiti, whom thou hast robbed of his kingdom
and slain together with his queen, my mother. I know that men overcome
the hatred entertained for wrongs which they have suffered much more
easily than for the wrongs which they have done, and so I cannot
expect that thou wilt take pity on me; but now a chance for revenge
has come to me.
"The king seeing that he was at the mercy of young Dighavu raised
his hands and said: 'Grant me my life, my dear Dighavu, grant me my
life. I shall be forever grateful to thee.' And Dighavu said without
bitterness or ill-will: 'How can I grant thee thy life, O king,
since my life is endangered by thee? I do not mean to take thy life.
It is thou, O king, who must grant me my life."
"And the king said: 'Well, my dear Dighavu, then grant me my life,
and I will grant thee thine.' Thus, King Brahmadatta of Kasi and young
Dighavu granted each other's life and took each other's hand and swore
an oath not to do any harm to each other.
"Then King Brahmadatta of Kasi said to young Dighavu: 'Why did thy
father say to thee in the hour of his death: "Be not far-sighted, be
not near-sighted, for hatred is not appeased by hatred. Hatred is
appeased by not-hatred alone,"-what did thy father mean by that?'
"The youth replied: 'When my father, O king, in the hour of his
death said: 'Be not far-sighted," he meant, Let 'Be not hatred go far.
And when my father said near-sighted," he meant, be not hasty to
fall out with thy friends. And when he said For not by hatred is
hatred appeased; hatred is appeased by not-hatred, he meant this: Thou
hast killed my father and mother, O king, and if I should deprive thee
of thy life, then thy partisans in turn would take away my life; my
partisans again would deprive thine of their lives. Thus by hatred,
hatred would not be appeased. But now, O king, thou hast granted me my
life, and I have granted thee thine; thus by not-hatred hatred has
been appeased.'
"Then King Brahmadatta of Kasi thought: 'How wise is young Dighavu
that he understands in its full extent the meaning of what his
father spoke concisely.' And the king gave him back his father's
kingdom and gave him his daughter in marriage."
Having finished the story, the Blessed One said: "Brethren, ye are
my lawful sons in the faith, begotten by the words of my mouth.
Children ought not to trample under foot the counsel given them by
their father; do ye henceforth follow my admonitions. Then the
bhikkhus met in conference; they discussed their differences in mutual
good will, and the concord of the Sangha was re-established.


IT happened that the Blessed One walked up and down in the open
air unshod. When the elders saw that the Blessed One walked unshod,
they put away their shoes and did likewise. But the novices did not
heed the example of their elders and kept their feet covered.
Some of the brethren noticed the irreverent behavior of the
novices and told the Blessed One; and the Blessed One rebuked the
novices and said: "If the brethren, even now, while I am yet living,
show so little respect and courtesy to one another, what will they
do when I have passed away?"
The Blessed One was filled with anxiety for the welfare of the
truth; and he continued: "Even the laymen, O bhikkhus, who move in the
world, pursuing some handicraft that they may procure them a living,
will be respectful, affectionate, and hospitable to their teachers. Do
ye, therefore, O bhikkhus, so let your light shine forth, that ye,
having left the world and devoted your entire life to religion and
to religious discipline, may observe the rules of decency, be
respectful, affectionate, and hospitable to your teachers and
superiors, or those who rank as your teachers and superiors. Your
demeanor, O bhikkhus, does not conduce to the conversion of the
unconverted and to the increase of the number of the faithful. It
serves, O bhikkhus, to repel the unconverted and to estrange them. I
exhort you to be more considerate in the future, more thoughtful and
more respectful."


WHEN Devadatta, the son of Suprabuddha and a brother of Yasodhara,
became a disciple, he cherished the hope of attaining the same
distinctions and honors as Gotama Siddhattha. Being disappointed in
his ambitions, he conceived in his heart a jealous hatred, and,
attempting to excel the Perfect One in virtue, he found fault with his
regulations and reproved them as too lenient.
Devadatta went to Rajagaha and gained the ear of Ajatasattu, the son
of King Bimbisara. And Ajatasattu built a new vihara for Devadatta,
and founded a sect whose disciples were pledged to severe rules and
Soon afterwards the Blessed One himself came to Rajagaha and
stayed at the Veluvana vihara. Devadatta called on the Blessed One,
requesting him to sanction his rules of greater stringency, by which a
greater holiness might be procured. "The body," he said, consists of
its thirty-two parts and has no divine attributes. It is conceived
in sin and born in corruption. Its attributes are liability to pain
and dissolution, for it is impermanent. It is the receptacle of
karma which is the curse of our former existences; it is the
dwelling place of sin and diseases and its organs constantly discharge
disgusting secretions. Its end is death and its goal the charnel
house. Such being the condition of the body it behooves us to treat it
as a carcass full of abomination and to clothe it in such rags only as
have been gathered in cemeteries or upon dung-hills."
The Blessed One said: "Truly, the body is full of impurity and its
end is the charnel house, for it is impermanent and destined to be
dissolved into its elements. But being the receptacle of karma, it
lies in our power to make it a vessel of truth and not of evil. It
is not good to indulge in the pleasures of the body, but neither is it
good to neglect our bodily needs and to heap filth upon impurities.
The lamp that is not cleansed and not filled with oil will be
extinguished, and a body that is unkempt, unwashed, and weakened by
penance will not be a fit receptacle for the light of truth. Attend to
your body and its needs as you would treat a wound which you care
for without loving it. Severe rules will not lead the disciples on the
middle path which I have taught. Certainly, no one can be prevented
from keeping more stringent rules, if he sees fit to do so but they
should not be imposed upon any one, for they are unnecessary."
Thus the Tathagata refused Devadatta's proposal; and Devadatta
left the Buddha and went into the vihara speaking evil of the Lord's
path of salvation as too lenient and altogether insufficient. When the
Blessed One heard of Devadatta's intrigues, he said: "Among men
there is no one who is not blamed. People blame him who sits silent
and him who speaks, they also blame the man who preaches the middle
Devadatta instigated Ajatasattu to plot against his father
Bimbisara, the king, so that the prince would no longer be subject
to him. Bimbisara was imprisoned by his son in a tower, where he died,
leaving the kingdom of Magadha to his son Ajatasattu.
The new king listened to the evil advice of Devadatta, and he gave
orders to take the life of the Tathagata. However, the murderers
sent out to kill the Lord could not perform their wicked deed, and
became converted as soon as they saw him and listened to his
preaching. The rock hurled down from a precipice upon the great Master
split in twain, and the two pieces passed by on either side without
doing any harm. Nalagiri, the wild elephant let loose to destroy the
Lord, became gentle in his presence; and Ajatasattu, suffering greatly
from the pangs of his conscience, went to the Blessed One and sought
peace in his distress.
The Blessed One received Ajatasattu kindly and taught him the way of
salvation; but Devadatta still tried to become the founder of a
religious school of his own. Devadatta did not succeed in his plans
and having been abandoned by many of his disciples, he fell sick,
and then repented. He entreated those who had remained with him to
carry his litter to the Buddha, saying: "Take me, children, take me to
him; though I have done evil to him, I am his brother-in-law. For
the sake of our relationship the Buddha will save me." And they
obeyed, although reluctantly.
And Devadatta in his impatience to see the Blessed One rose from his
litter while his carriers were washing their hands. But his feet
burned under him; he sank to the ground; and, having chanted a hymn on
the Buddha, died.


ON one occasion the Blessed One entered the assembly hall and the
brethren hushed their conversation. When they had greeted him with
clasped hands, they sat down and became composed. Then the Blessed One
said: "Your minds are inflamed with intense interest; what was the
topic of your discussion?"
And Sariputta rose and spake: "World-honored master, were the nature
of man's own existence. We were trying to grasp the mixture of our own
being which is called Name and Form. Every human being consists of
conformations, and there are three groups which are not corporeal.
They are sensation, perception, and the dispositions; all three
constitute consciousness and mind, being comprised under the term
Name. And there are four elements, the earthy element, the watery
element, the fiery element, and the gaseous element, and these four
elements constitute man's bodily form, being held together so that
this machine moves like a puppet. How does this name and form endure
and how can it live?"
Said the Blessed One: "Life is instantaneous and living is dying.
Just as a chariot-wheel in rolling rolls only at one point of the
tire, and in resting rests only at one point; in exactly the same way,
the life of a living being lasts only for the period of one thought.
As soon as that thought has ceased the being is said to have ceased.
As it has been said: 'The being of a past moment of thought has lived,
but does not live, nor will it live. The being of a future moment of
thought will live, but has not lived, nor does it live. The being of
the present moment of thought does live, but has not lived, nor will
it live.'
"As to Name and Form we must understand how they interact. Name
has no power of its own, nor can it go on of its own impulse, either
to eat, or to drink, or to utter sounds, or to make a movement. Form
also is without power and cannot go on of its own impulse. It has no
desire to eat, or to drink, or to utter sounds, or to make a movement.
But Form goes on when supported by Name, and Name when supported by
Form. When Name has a desire to eat, or to drink, or to utter
sounds, or to make a movement, then Form eats, drinks, utters
sounds, makes a movement.
"It is as if two men, the one blind from birth and the other a
cripple, were desirous of going traveling, and the man blind from
birth were to say to the cripple as follows: 'See here! I am able to
use my legs, but I have no eyes with which to see the rough and the
smooth places in the road.' And the cripple were to say to the man
blind from birth as follows: 'See here! I am able to use my eyes,
but I have no legs with which to go forward and back.' And the man
blind from birth, pleased and delighted, were to mount the cripple
on his shoulders. And the cripple sitting on the shoulders of the
man blind from birth were to direct him, saying, 'Leave the left and
go to the right; leave the right and go to the left.'
"Here the man blind from birth is without power of his own, and
weak, and cannot go of his own impulse or might. The cripple also is
without power of his own, and weak, and cannot go of his own impulse
or might. Yet when they mutually support one another it is not
impossible for them to go. In exactly the same way Name is without
power of its own, and cannot spring up of its own might, nor perform
this or that action. Form also is without power of its own, and cannot
spring up of its own might, nor perform this or that action. Yet
when they mutually support one another it is not impossible for them
to spring up and go on.
"There is no material that exists for the production of Name and
Form; and when Name and Form cease, they do not go any whither in
space. After Name and Form have ceased, they do not exist anywhere,
any more than there is heaped-up music material. When a lute is played
upon, there is no previous store of sound; and when the music ceases
it does not go any whither in space. When it has ceased, it exists
nowhere in a stored-up state. Having previously been non-existent,
it came into existence on account of the structure and stern of the
lute and the exertions of the performer; and as it came into existence
so it passes away. In exactly the same way, all the elements of being,
both corporeal and non-corporeal come into existence after having
previously been non-existent; and having come into existence pass
"There is not a self residing in Name and Form, but the
cooperation of the conformations produces what people call a man. Just
as the word 'chariot' is but a mode of expression for axle, wheels,
the chariot-body and other constituents in their proper combination,
so a living being is the appearance of the groups with the four
elements as they are joined in a unit. There is no self in the
carriage and there is no self in man. O bhikkhus, this doctrine is
sure and an eternal truth, that there is no self outside of its parts.
This self of ours which constitutes Name and Form is a combination
of the groups with the four elements, but there is no ego entity, no
self in itself.
"Paradoxical though it may sound: There is a path to walk on,
there is walking being done, but there is no traveler. There are deeds
being done, but there is no doer. There is a blowing of the air, but
there is no wind that does the blowing. The thought of self is an
error and all existences are as hollow as the plantain tree and as
empty as twirling water bubbles.
"Therefore, O bhikkhus, as there is no self, there is no
transmigration of a self; but there are deeds and the continued effect
of deeds. There is a rebirth of karma; there is reincarnation. This
rebirth, this reincarnation, this reappearance of the conformations is
continuous and depends on the law of cause and effect. Just as a
seal is impressed upon the wax reproducing the configurations of its
device, so the thoughts of men, their characters, their aspirations
are impressed upon others in continuous transference and continue
their karma, and good deeds will continue in blessings while bad deeds
will continue in curses.
"There is no entity here that migrates, no self is transferred
from one place to another; but there is a voice uttered here and the
echo of it comes back. The teacher pronounces a stanza and the
disciple who attentively listens to his teacher's instruction, repeats
the stanza. Thus the stanza is reborn in the mind of the disciple. The
body is a compound of perishable organs. It is subject to decay; and
we should take care of it as of a wound or a sore; we should attend to
its needs without being attached to it, or loving it. The body is like
a machine, and there is no self in it that makes it walk or act, but
the thoughts of it, as the windy elements, cause the machine to
work. The body moves about like a cart. Therefore 'tis said:

"As ships are blown by wind on sails,
As arrows fly from twanging bow,
So, when the force of thought directs,
The body, following, must go.

"Just as machines are worked by ropes,
So are the body's gear and groove;
Obedient to the pull of mind,
Our muscles and our members move.

"No independent 'I' is here,
But many gathered mobile forces;
Our chariot is manned by mind,
And our karma is our horses.

"He only who utterly abandons all thought of the ego escapes the
snares of the Evil One; he is out of the reach of Mara. Thus says
the pleasure-promising tempter:

"So long as to those things
Called 'mine, and 'I' and 'me'
Your hungry heart still clings-
My snares you cannot flee.

"The faithful disciple replies:

"Naught's mine and naught of me,
The self I do not mind!
Thus Mara, I tell thee,
My path thou canst not find.

"Dismiss the error of the self and do not cling to possessions which
are transient, but perform deeds that are good, for deeds are enduring
and in deeds your karma continues.
"Since, then, O bhikkhus, there is no self, there can not be any
after life of a self. Therefore abandon all thought of self. But since
there are deeds and since deeds continue, be careful with your
deeds. All beings have karma as their portion: they are heirs of their
karma; they are sprung from their karma; their karma is their kinsman;
their karma is their refuge; karma allots beings to meanness or to

"Assailed by death in life last throes
On quitting all thy joys and woes
What is thine own, thy recompense?
What stays with thee when passing hence?
What like a shadow follows thee
And will Beyond thine heirloom be?

"'Tis deeds, thy deeds, both good and bad;
Naught else can after death be had.
Thy deeds are thine, thy recompense;
They are thine own when going hence;
They like a shadow follow thee
And will Beyond thine heirloom be.

"Let all then here perform good deeds,
For future weal a treasure store;
There to reap crops from noble seeds,
A bliss increasing evermore."


THE Blessed One thus addressed the bhikkhus: "It is through not
understanding the four noble truths, O bhikkhus, that we had to wander
so long in the weary path of samsara, both you and I.
"Through contact thought is born from sensation, and is reborn by
a reproduction of its form. Starting from the simplest forms, the mind
rises and falls according to deeds, but the aspirations of a
Bodhisattva pursue the straight path of wisdom and righteousness,
until they reach perfect enlightenment in the Buddha.
"All creatures are what they are through the karma of their deeds
done in former and in present existences.
"The rational nature of man is a spark of the true light; it is
the first step on the upward road. But new births are required to
insure an ascent to the summit of existence, the enlightenment of mind
and heart, where the immeasurable light of moral comprehension is
gained which is the source of all righteousness. Having attained
this higher birth, I have found the truth and have taught you the
noble path that leads to the city of peace. I have shown you the way
to the lake of ambrosia, which washes away all evil desire. I have
given you the refreshing drink called the perception of truth, and
he who drinks of it becomes free from excitement, passion, and
"The very gods envy the bliss of him who has escaped from the floods
of passion and has climbed the shores of Nirvana. His heart is
cleansed from all defilement and free from all illusion. He is like
unto the lotus which grows in the water, yet not a drop of water
adheres to its petals. The man who walks in the noble path lives in
the world, and yet his heart is not defiled by worldly desires.
"He who does not see the four noble truths, he who does not
understand the three characteristics and has not grounded himself in
the uncreate, has still a long path to traverse by repeated births
through the desert of ignorance with its mirages of illusion and
through the morass of wrong. But now that you have gained
comprehension, the cause of further migrations and aberrations is
removed. The goal is reached. The craving of selfishness is destroyed,
and the truth is attained. This is true deliverance; this is
salvation; this is heaven and the bliss of a life immortal."

JOTIKKHA, the son of Subhadda, was a householder living in Rajagaha.
Having received a precious bowl of sandalwood decorated with jewels,
he erected a long pole before his house and put the bowl on its top
with this legend: "Should a samana take this bowl down without using a
ladder or a stick with a hook, or without climbing the pole, but by
magic power, he shall receive as reward whatever he desires."
The people came to the Blessed One, full of wonder and their
mouths overflowing with praise, saying: "Great is the Tathagata. His
disciples perform miracles. Kassapa, the disciple of the Buddha, saw
the bowl on Jotikkha's pole, and, stretching out his hand, he took
it down, carrying it away in triumph to the vihara."
When the Blessed One heard what had happened, he went to Kassapa,
and, breaking the bowl to pieces, forbade his disciples to perform
miracles of any kind.
Soon after this it happened that in one of the rainy seasons many
bhikkhus were staying in the Vajji territory during a famine. And
one of the bhikkhus proposed to his brethren that they should praise
one another to the householders of the village, saying: "This
bhikkhu is a saint; he has seen celestial visions; and that bhikkhu
possesses supernatural gifts; he can work miracles." And the villagers
said: "It is lucky, very lucky for us, that such saints are spending
the rainy season with us." And they gave willingly and abundantly, and
the bhikkhus prospered and did not suffer from the famine.
When the Blessed One heard it, he told Ananda to call the bhikkhus
together, and he asked them: "Tell me, O bhikkhus, when does a bhikkhu
cease to be a bhikkhu?"
And Sariputta replied: "An ordained disciple must not commit any
unchaste act. The disciple who commits an unchaste act is no longer
a disciple of the Sakyamuni. Again, an ordained disciple must not take
except what has been given him. disciple who takes, be it so little as
a penny's worth, is no longer a disciple of the Sakyamuni. And lastly,
an ordained disciple must not knowingly and malignantly deprive any
harmless creature of life, not even an earthworm or an ant. The
disciple who knowingly and malignantly deprives any harmless
creature of its life is no longer a disciple of the Sakyamuni. These
are the three great prohibitions."
And the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus and said: "There is
another great prohibition which I declare to you: An ordained disciple
must not boast of any superhuman perfection. The disciple who with
evil intent and from covetousness boasts of a superhuman perfection,
be it celestial visions or miracles, is no longer a disciple of the
Sakyamuni. I forbid you, O bhikkhus, to employ any spells or
supplications, for they are useless, since the law of karma governs
all things. He who attempts to perform miracles has not understood the
doctrine of the Tathagata."


THERE was a poet who had acquired the spotless eye of truth, and
he believed in the Buddha, whose doctrine gave him peace of mind and
comfort in the hour of affliction. It happened that an epidemic
swept over the country in which he lived, so that many died, and the
people were terrified. Some of them trembled with fright, and in
anticipation of their fate were smitten with all the horrors of
death before they died, while others began to be merry, shouting
loudly, "Let us enjoy ourselves today, for we know not whether
tomorrow we shall live"; yet was their laughter no genuine gladness,
but a mere pretense and affectation.
Among all these worldly men and women trembling with anxiety, the
Buddhist poet lived in the time of the pestilence, as usual, calm
and undisturbed, helping wherever he could and ministering unto the
sick, soothing their pains by medicine and religious consolation.
And a man came to him and said:
"My heart is nervous and excited, for I see people die. I am not
anxious about others, but I tremble because of myself. Help me; cure
me of my fear."
The poet replied: "There is help for him who has compassion on
others, but there is no help for thee so long as thou clingest to
thine own self alone. Hard times try the souls of men and teach them
righteousness and charity. Canst thou witness these sad sights
around thee and still be filled with selfishness? Canst thou see thy
brothers, sisters, and friends suffer, yet not forget the petty
cravings and lust of thine own heart? Noticing the desolation in the
mind of the pleasure-seeking man, the Buddhist poet composed this song
and taught it to the brethren in the vihara:

"Unless you take refuge in the Buddha and find rest in Nirvana,
Your life is but vanity-empty and desolate vanity.
To see the world is idle, and to enjoy life is empty.
The world, including man, is but like a phantom, and the hope of
heaven is as a mirage.

"The worldling seeks pleasures, fattening himself like a caged fowl,
But the Buddhist saint flies up to the sun like the wild crane.
The fowl in the coop has food but will soon be boiled in the pot;
No provisions are given to the wild crane, but the heavens and the
earth are his.

The poet said: "The times are hard and teach the people a lesson;
yet do they not heed it." And he composed another poem on the vanity
of worldliness:

"It is good to reform, and it is good to exhort people to reform.
The things of the world will all be swept away.
Let others be busy and buried with care.
My mind all unvexed shall be pure.

"After pleasures they hanker and find no satisfaction;
Riches they covet and can never have enough.
They are like unto puppets held up by a string.
When the string breaks they come down with a shock.

"In the domain of death there are neither great nor small;
Neither gold nor silver is used, nor precious jewels.
No distinction is made between the high and the low.
And daily the dead are buried beneath the fragrant sod.

"Look at the sun setting behind the western hills.
You lie down to rest, but soon the cock will announce morn.
Reform today and do not wait until it be too late
Do not say it is early, for the time quickly passes by.

"It is good to reform and it is good to exhort people to reform.
It is good to lead a righteous life and take refuge in the Buddha's
Your talents may reach to the skies, your wealth may be untold-
But all is in vain unless you attain the peace of Nirvana."


THE Buddha said: "Three things, O disciples, are characterized by
secrecy: love affairs, priestly wisdom, and all aberrations from the
path of truth. Women who are in love, O disciples seek secrecy and
shun publicity; priests who claim to be in possession of special
revelation, O disciples, seek secrecy and shun publicity; all those
who stray from the path of truth, O disciples, seek secrecy and shun
"Three things, O disciples, shine before the world and cannot be
hidden. What are the three? The moon, O disciples, illumines the world
and cannot be hidden; the sun, O disciples, illumines the world and
cannot be hidden; and the truth proclaimed by the Tathagata
illumines the world and cannot be hidden. These three things, O
disciples, illumine the world and cannot be hidden. There is no
secrecy about them."


THE Buddha said: "What, my friends, is evil? Killing is evil;
stealing is evil; yielding to sexual passion is evil; lying is evil;
slandering is evil; abuse is evil; gossip is evil; envy is evil;
hatred is evil; to cling to false doctrine is evil; all these
things, my friends, are evil.
"And what, my friends, is the root of evil? Desire is the root of
evil; hatred is the root of evil; illusion is the root of evil;
these things are the root of evil.
"What, however, is good? Abstaining from killing is good; abstaining
from theft is good; abstaining from sensuality is good; abstaining
from falsehood is good; abstaining from slander is good; suppression
of unkindness is good; abandoning gossip is good; letting go all
envy is good; dismissing hatred is good; obedience to the truth is
good; all these things are good.
"And what, my friend, is the root of the good? Freedom from desire
is the root of the good; freedom from hatred and freedom from
illusion; these things, my friends, are the root of the good.
"What, however, O brethren, is suffering? What is the origin of
suffering? What is the annihilation of suffering? Birth is
suffering; old age is suffering; disease is suffering; death is
suffering; sorrow and misery are suffering; affliction and despair are
suffering; to be united with loathsome things is suffering; the loss
of that which we love and the failure in attaining that which is
longed for are suffering; all these things, O brethren, are suffering.
"And what, O brethren, is the origin of suffering? It is lust,
passion, and the thirst for existence that yearns for pleasure
everywhere, leading to a continual rebirth I It is sensuality, desire,
selfishness; all these things, O brethren, are the origin of
"And what is the annihilation of suffering? The radical and total
annihilation of this thirst and the abandonment, the liberation, the
deliverance from passion, that, O brethren, is the annihilation of
"And what, O brethren, is the path that leads to the annihilation of
suffering? It is the holy eightfold path that leads to the
annihilation of suffering, which consists of right views, right
decision, right speech, right action, right living, right
struggling, right thoughts, and right meditation.
"In so far, O friends, as a noble youth thus recognizes suffering
and the origin of suffering, as he recognizes the annihilation of
suffering, and walks on the path that leads to the annihilation of
suffering, radically forsaking passion, subduing wrath, annihilating
the vain conceit of the "I-am, leaving ignorance, and attaining to
enlightenment, he will make an end of all suffering even in this


THE Buddha said: "All acts of living creatures become bad by ten
things, and by avoiding the ten things they become good. There are
three evils of the body, four evils of the tongue, and three evils
of the mind.
"The evils of the body are, murder, theft, and adultery; of the
tongue, lying, slander, abuse, and idle talk; of the mind,
covetousness, hatred, and error.
"I exhort you to avoid the ten evils: 1. Kill not, but have regard
for life. 2. Steal not, neither do ye rob; but help everybody to be
master of the fruits of his labor. 3. Abstain from impurity, and
lead a life of chastity. 4. Lie not, but be truthful. Speak the
truth with discretion, fearlessly and in a loving heart. 5. Invent not
evil reports, neither do ye repeat them. Carp not, but look for the
good sides of your fellow-beings, so that ye may with sincerity defend
them against their enemies. 6. Swear not, but speak decently and
with dignity. 7. Waste not the time with gossip, but speak to the
purpose or keep silence. 8. Covet not, nor envy, but rejoice at the
fortunes of other people. 9. Cleanse your heart of malice and
cherish no hatred, not even against your enemies; but embrace all
living beings with kindness. 10. Free your mind of ignorance and be
anxious to learn the truth, especially in the one thing that is
needful, lest you fall a prey either to scepticism or to errors.
Scepticism will make you indifferent and errors will lead you
astray, so that you shall not find the noble path that leads to life


THE Blessed One said to his disciples: "When I have passed away
and can no longer address you and edify your minds with religious
discourse, select from among you men of good family and education to
preach the truth in my stead. And let those men be invested with the
robes of the Tathagata, let them enter into the abode of the
Tathagata, and occupy the pulpit of the Tathagata.
"The robe of the Tathagata is sublime forbearance and patience.
The abode of the Tathagata is charity and love of all beings. The
pulpit of the Tathagata is the comprehension of the good law in its
abstract meaning as well as in its particular application.
"The preacher must propound the truth with unshrinking mind. He must
have the power of persuasion rooted in virtue and in strict fidelity
to his vows. The preacher must keep in his proper sphere and be steady
in his course. He must not flatter his vanity by seeking the company
of the great, nor must he keep company with persons who are
frivolous and immoral. When in temptation, he should constantly
think of the Buddha and he will conquer. All who come to hear the
doctrine, the preacher must receive with benevolence, and his sermon
must be without invidiousness. The preacher must not be prone to
carp at others, or to blame other preachers; nor speak scandal, nor
propagate bitter words. He must not mention by name other disciples to
vituperate them and reproach their demeanor.
"Clad in a clean robe, dyed with good color, with appropriate
undergarments, he must ascend the pulpit with a mind free from blame
and at peace with the whole world. He must not take delight in
quarrelous disputations or engage in controversies so as to show the
superiority of his talents, but be calm and composed. No hostile
feelings shall reside in his heart, and he must never abandon the
disposition of charity toward all beings. His sole aim must be that
all beings become Buddhas. Let the preacher apply himself with zeal to
his work, and the Tathagata will show to him the body of the holy
law in its transcendent glory. He shall be honored as one whom the
Tathagata has blessed. The Tathagata blesses the preacher and also
those who reverently listen to him and joyfully accept the doctrine.
"All those who receive the truth will find perfect enlightenment.
And, verily, such is the power of the doctrine that even by the
reading of a single stanza, or by reciting, copying, and keeping in
mind a single sentence of the good law, persons may be converted to
the truth and enter the path of righteousness which leads to
deliverance from evil. Creatures that are swayed by impure passions,
when they listen to the voice, will be purified. The ignorant who
are infatuated with the follies of the world will, when pondering on
the profundity of the doctrine, acquire wisdom. Those who act under
the impulse of hatred will, when taking refuge in the Buddha, be
filled with good-will and love.
"A preacher must be full of energy, and cheerful hope, never
tiring and never despairing of final success. A preacher must be
like a man in quest of water who digs a well in an arid tract of land.
So long as he sees that the sand is dry and white, he knows that the
water is still far off. But let him not be troubled or give up the
task as hopeless. The work of removing the dry sand must be done so
that he can dig down deeper into the ground. And often the deeper he
has to dig, the cooler and purer and more refreshing will the water
be. When after some time of digging he sees that the sand be comes
moist, he accepts it as a token that the water is near. So long as the
people do not listen to the words of truth, the preacher knows that he
has to dig deeper into their hearts; but when they begin to heed his
words he apprehends that they will soon attain enlightenment.
"Into your hands, O you men of good family and education who take
the vow of preaching the words of the Tathagata, the Blessed One
transfers, intrusts, and commends the good law of truth. Receive the
good law of truth, keep it, read and re-read it, fathom it, promulgate
it, and preach it to all beings in all the quarters of the universe.
"The Tathagata is not avaricious, nor narrow-minded, and he is
willing to impart the perfect Buddha-knowledge unto all who are
ready and willing to receive it. Do you be like him. Imitate him and
follow his example in bounteously giving, showing, and bestowing the
truth. Gather round you hearers who love to listen to the benign and
comforting words of the law; rouse the unbelievers to accept the truth
and fill them with delight and joy. Quicken them, edify them, and lift
them higher and higher until they see the truth face to face in all
its splendor and infinite glory."
When the Blessed One had thus spoken, the disciples said: "O thou
who rejoicest in kindness having its source in compassion, thou
great cloud of good qualities and of benevolent mind, thou quenchest
the fire that vexeth living beings, thou pourest out nectar, the
rain of the law! We shall do, O Lord, what the Tathagata commands.
We shall fulfill his behest; the Lord shall find us obedient to his
And this vow of the disciples resounded through the universe, and
like an echo it came back from all the Bodhisattvas who are to be
and will come to preach the good law of Truth to future generations.
And the Blessed One said: "The Tathagata is like unto a powerful
king who rules his kingdom with righteousness, but being attacked by
envious enemies goes out to wage war against his foes. When the king
sees his soldiers fight he is delighted with their gallantry and
will bestow upon them donations of all kinds. Ye are the soldiers of
the Tathagata, while Mara, the Evil One, is the enemy who must be
conquered. And the Tathagata will give to his soldiers the city of
Nirvana, the great capital of the good law. And when the enemy is
overcome, the Dharma-raja, the great king of truth, will bestow upon
all his disciples the most precious crown, which jewel brings
perfect enlightenment, supreme wisdom, and undisturbed peace."

THIS is the Dharmapada, the path of religion pursued by those who
are followers of the Buddha: Creatures from mind their character
derive; mind-marshaled are they, mind-made. Mind is the source
either of bliss or of corruption. By oneself evil is done; by
oneself one suffers; by oneself evil is left undone; by oneself one is
purified. Purity and impurity belong to oneself, no one can purify
another. You yourself must make an effort. The Tathagatas are only
preachers. The thoughtful who enter the way are freed from the bondage
of Mara. He who does not rouse himself when it is time to rise; who,
though young and strong, is full of sloth; whose will and thoughts are
weak; that lazy and idle man will never find the way to enlightenment.
If a man hold himself dear, let him watch himself carefully; the
truth guards him who guards himself. If a man makes himself as he
teaches others to be, then, being himself subdued, he may subdue
others; one's own self is indeed difficult to subdue. If some men
conquer in battle a thousand times a thousand men, and if another
conquer himself, he is the greatest of conquerors. It is the habit
of fools, be they laymen or members of the clergy, to think, this is
done by me. May others be subject to me. In this or that transaction a
prominent part should be played by me." Fools do not care for the duty
to be performed or the aim to be reached, but think of themselves
alone. Everything is but a pedestal of their vanity.
Bad deeds, and deeds hurtful to ourselves, are easy to do; what is
beneficial and good, that is very difficult. If anything is to be
done, let a man do it, let him attack it vigorously!
Before long, alas! this body will lie on the earth, despised,
without understanding, like a useless log; yet our thoughts will
endure. They will be thought again, and will produce action. Good
thoughts will produce good actions, and bad thoughts will produce
bad actions.
Earnestness is the path of immortality, thoughtlessness the path
of death. Those who are in earnest do not die; those who are
thoughtless are as if dead already. Those who imagine they find
truth in untruth, and see untruth in truth, will never arrive at
truth, but follow vain desires. They who know truth in truth, and
untruth in untruth, arrive at truth, and follow true desires. As
rain breaks through an ill-thatched house, passion will break
through an unreflecting mind. As rain does not break through a
well-thatched house, passion will not break through a
well-reflecting mind. lead the water wherever they like; fletchers
bend the arrow; carpenters bend a log of wood; wise people fashion
themselves; wise people falter not amidst blame and praise. Having
listened to the law, they become serene, like a deep, smooth, and
still lake.
If a man speaks or acts with an evil thought, pain follows him as
the wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the wagon. An evil
deed is better left undone, for a man will repent of it afterwards;
a good deed is better done, for having done it one will not repent. If
a man commits a wrong let him not do it again; let him not delight
in wrongdoing; pain is the outcome of evil. If a man does what is
good, let him do it again; let him delight in it; happiness is the
outcome of good.
Let no man think lightly of evil, saying in his heart, It will not
come nigh unto me." As by the falling of waterdrops a water-pot is
filled, so the fool becomes full of evil, though he gather it little
by little. Let no man think lightly of good, saying in his heart, It
will not come nigh unto me." As by the falling of water-drops a
water-pot is filled, so the wise man becomes full of good, though he
gather it little by little.
He who lives for pleasure only, his senses uncontrolled,
immoderate in his food, idle, and weak, him Mara, the tempter, will
certainly overthrow, as the wind throws down a weak tree. He who lives
without looking for pleasures, his senses well-controlled, moderate in
his food, faithful and strong, him Mara will certainly not
overthrow, any more than the wind throws down a rocky mountain.
The fool who knows his foolishness, is wise at least so far. But a
fool who thinks himself wise, he is a fool indeed. To the evil-doer
wrong appears sweet as honey; he looks upon it as pleasant so long
as it bears no fruit; but when its fruit ripens, then he looks upon it
as wrong. And so the good man looks upon the goodness of the Dharma as
a burden and an evil so long as it bears no fruit; but when its
fruit ripens, then he sees its goodness.
A hater may do great harm to a hater, or an enemy to an enemy; but a
wrongly-directed mind will do greater mischief unto itself. A
mother, a father, or any other relative will do much good; but a
well-directed mind will do greater service unto itself.
He whose wickedness is very great brings himself down to that
state where his enemy wishes him to be. He himself is his greatest
enemy. Thus a creeper destroys the life of a tree on which it finds
Do not direct thy thought to what gives pleasure, that thou mayest
not cry out when burning, "This is pain." The wicked man burns by
his own deeds, as if burnt by fire. Pleasures destroy the foolish; the
foolish man by his thirst for pleasures destroys himself as if he were
his own enemy. The fields are damaged by hurricanes and weeds; mankind
is damaged by passion, by hatred, by vanity, and by lust. Let no man
ever take into consideration whether a thing is pleasant or
unpleasant. The love of pleasure begets grief and the dread of pain
causes fear; he who is free from the love of pleasure and the dread of
pain knows neither grief nor fear.
He who gives himself to vanity, and does not give himself to
meditation, forgetting the real aim of life and grasping at
pleasure, will in time envy him who has exerted himself in meditation.
The fault of others is easily noticed, but that of oneself is
difficult to perceive. A man winnows his neighbor's faults like chaff,
but his own fault he hides, as a cheat hides the false die from the
gambler. If a man looks after the faults of others, and is always
inclined to take offense, his own passions will grow, and he is far
from the destruction of passions. Not about the perversities of
others, not about their sins of commission or omission, but about
his own misdeeds and negligences alone should a sage be worried.
Good people shine from afar, like the snowy mountains; bad people
are concealed, like arrows shot by night.
If a man by causing pain to others, wishes to obtain pleasure for
himself, he, entangled in the bonds of selfishness, will never be free
from hatred. Let a man overcome anger by love, let him overcome evil
by good; let him overcome the greedy by liberality, the liar by truth!
For hatred does not cease by hatred at any time; hatred ceases by
not hatred, this is an old rule.
Speak the truth, do not yield to anger; give, if thou art asked;
by these three steps thou wilt become divine. Let a wise man blow
off the impurities of his self, as a smith blows off the impurities of
silver, one by one, little by little, and from time to time.
Lead others, not by violence, but by righteousness and equity. He
who possesses virtue and intelligence, who is just, speaks the
truth, and does what is his own business, him the world will hold
dear. As the bee collects nectar and departs without injuring the
flower, or its color or scent, so let a sage dwell in the community.
If a traveler does not meet with one who is his better, or his
equal, let him firmly keep to his solitary journey; there is no
companionship with fools. Long is the night to him who is awake;
long is a mile to him who is tired; long is life to the foolish who do
not know the true religion. Better than living a hundred years not
seeing the highest truth, is one day in the life of a man who sees the
highest truth.
Some form their Dharma arbitrarily and fabricate it artificially;
they advance complex speculations and imagine that good results are
attainable only by the acceptance of their theories; yet the truth
is but one; there are not different truths in the world. Having
reflected on the various theories, we have gone into the yoke with him
who has shaken off all sin. But shall we be able to proceed together
with him?
The best of ways is the eightfold path. This is the path. There is
no other that leads to the purifying of intelligence. Go on this path!
Everything else is the deceit of Mara, the tempter. If you go on
this path, you will make an end of pain! Says the Tathagata, The
path was preached by me, when I had understood the removal of the
thorn in the flesh.
Not only by discipline and vows, not only by much learning, do I
earn the happiness of release which no worldling can know. Bhikkhu, be
not confident as long as thou hast not attained the extinction of
thirst. The extinction of evil desire is the highest religion.
The gift of religion exceeds all gifts; the sweetness of religion
exceeds all sweetness; the delight in religion exceeds all delights;
the extinction of thirst overcomes all pain. Few are there among men
who cross the river and reach the goal. The great multitudes are
running up and down the shore; but there is no suffering for him who
has finished his journey.
As the lily will grow full of sweet perfume and delight upon a
heap of rubbish, thus the disciple of the truly enlightened Buddha
shines forth by his wisdom among those who are like rubbish, among the
people that walk in darkness. Let us live happily then, not hating
those who hate us! Among men who hate us let us dwell free from
Let us live happily then, free from all ailments among the ailing!
Among men who are ailing let us dwell free from ailments! Let us
live happily, then, free from greed among the greedy! Among men who
are greedy let us dwell free from greed!
The sun is bright by day, the moon shines by night, the warrior is
bright in his armor thinkers are bright in their meditation; but among
all, the brightest, with splendor day and night, is the Buddha, the
Awakened, the Holy, Blessed.


AT one time when the Blessed One was journeying through Kosala he
came to the Brahman village which is called Manasakata. There he
stayed in a mango grove. And two young Brahmans came to him who were
of different schools. One was named Vasettha and the other Bharadvaja.
And Vasettha said to the Blessed One:
"We have a dispute as to the true path. I say the straight path
which leads unto a union with Brahma is that which has been
announced by the Brahman Pokkharasati, while my friend says the
straight path which leads unto a union with Brahma is that which has
been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha. Now, regarding thy high
reputation, O samana, and knowing that thou art called the Enlightened
One, the teacher of men and gods, the Blessed Buddha, we have come
to ask thee, are all these paths salvation? There are many roads all
around our village, and all lead to Manasakata. Is it just so with the
paths of the sages? Are all paths to salvation, and do they all lead
to a union with Brahma?
Then the Blessed One proposed these questions to the two Brahmans:
"Do you think that all paths are right?" Both answered and said: "Yes,
Gotama, we think so."
"But tell me, continued the Buddha has any one of the Brahmans,
versed in the Vedas, seen Brahma face to face?" "No sir!" was the
"But, then," said the Blessed One, has any teacher of the
Brahmans, versed in the Vedas, seen Brahma face to face?" The two
Brahmans said: "No, sir."
"But, then," said the Blessed One, has any one of the authors of the
Vedas seen Brahma face to face?" Again the two Brahmans answered in
the negative and exclaimed: "How can any one see Brahma or
understand him, for the mortal cannot understand the immortal." And
the Blessed One proposed an illustration, saying:
"It is as if a man should make a staircase in the place where four
roads cross, to mount up into a mansion. And people should ask him,
Where, good friends, is this mansion, to mount up into which you are
making this staircase? Knowest thou whether it is in the east, or in
the south, or in the west, or in the north? Whether it is high, or
low, or of medium size?' And when so asked he should answer, 'I know
it not.' And people should say to him, 'But, then, good friend, thou
art making a staircase to mount up into something-taking it for a
mansion-which all the while thou knowest not, neither hast thou seen
it.' And when so asked he should answer, That is exactly what I do;
yea I know that I cannot know it.' What would you think of him?
Would you not say that the talk of that man was foolish talk?"
"In sooth, Gotama, said the two Brahmans, it be foolish talk!" The
Blessed One continued: "Then the Brahmans should say, 'We show you the
way unto a union with what we know not and what we have not seen."
This being the substance of Brahman lore, does it not follow that
their task is vain?"
"It does follow, replied Bharadvaja.
Said the Blessed One: "Thus it is impossible that Brahmans versed in
the three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union
with that which they neither know nor have seen. Just as when a string
of blind men are clinging one to the other. Neither can the foremost
see, nor can those in the middle see, nor can the hindmost see. Even
so, methinks the talk of the Brahmans versed in the three Vedas is but
blind talk; it is ridiculous, consists of mere words, and is a vain
and empty thing. Now suppose," added the Blessed One that a man should
come hither to the bank of the river, and, having some business on the
other side, should want to cross. Do you suppose that if he were to
invoke the other bank of the river to come over to him on this side,
the bank would come on account of his praying?"
"Certainly not, Gotama."
"Yet this is the way of the Brahmans. They omit the practice of
those qualities which really make a man a Brahman, and say, 'Indra, we
call upon thee; Soma, we call upon thee; Varuna, we call upon thee;
Brahma, we call upon thee.' Verily, it is not possible that these
Brahmans, on account of their invocations, prayers, and praises,
should after death be united with Brahma.
"Now tell me," continued the Buddha, "what do the Brahmans say of
Brahma? Is his mind full of lust?" And when the Brahmans denied
this, the Buddha asked: "Is Brahma's mind full of malice, sloth, or
"No sir!" was the reply. "He is the opposite of all this."
And the Buddha went on: "But are the Brahmans free from these
vices?" "No, sir!" said Vasettha.
The Holy One said: "The Brahmans cling to the five things leading to
worldliness and yield to the temptations of the senses; they are
entangled in the five hindrances, lust, malice, sloth, pride, and
doubt. How can they be united to that which is most unlike their
nature? Therefore the threefold wisdom of the Brahmans is a
waterless desert, a pathless jungle, and a hopeless desolation."
When the Buddha had thus spoken, one of the Brahmans said: "We are
told, Gotama, that the Sakyamuni knows the path to a union with
And the Blessed One said: "What do you think, O Brahmans, of a man
born and brought up in Manasakata? Would he be in doubt about the most
direct way from this spot to Manasakata?"
"Certainly not, Gotama."
"Thus," replied the Buddha, the Tathagata knows the straight path
that leads to a union with Brahma. He knows it as one who has
entered the world of Brahma and has been born in it. There can be no
doubt in the Tathagata."
The two young Brahmans said: "If thou knowest the way show it to
And the Buddha said: "The Tathagata sees the universe face to face
and understands its nature. He proclaims the truth both in its
letter and in its spirit, and his doctrine is glorious in its
origin, glorious in its progress, glorious in its consummation. The
Tathagata reveals the higher life in its purity and perfection. He can
show you the way to that which is contrary to the five great
hindrances. The Tathagata lets his mind pervade the four quarters of
the world with thoughts of love. And thus the whole wide world, above,
below, around, and everywhere will continue to be filled with love,
far-reaching, grown great, and beyond measure. just as a mighty
trumpeter makes himself heard-and that without difficulty-in all the
four quarters of the earth; even so is the coming of the Tathagata:
there is not one living creature that the Tathagata passes by or
leaves aside, but regards them all with mind set free, and deep-felt
"This is the sign that a man follows the right path: Uprightness
is his delight, and he sees danger in the least of those things
which he should avoid. He trains himself in the commands of
morality, he encompasseth himself with holiness in word and deed; he
sustains his life by means that are quite pure; good is his conduct,
guarded is the door of his senses; mindful and self-possessed, he is
altogether happy. He who walks in the eightfold noble path with
unswerving determination is sure to reach Nirvana. The Tathagata
anxiously watches over his children and with loving care helps them to
see the light.
"When a hen has eight or ten or twelve eggs, over which she has
properly brooded, the wish arises in her heart, 'O would that my
little chickens would break open the eggshell with their claws, or
with their beaks, and come forth into the light in safety!' yet all
the while those little chickens are sure to break the egg-shell and
will come forth into the light in safety. Even so, a brother who
with firm determination walks in the noble path is sure to come
forth into the light, sure to reach up to the higher wisdom, sure to
attain to the highest bliss of enlightenment."


WHILE the Blessed One was staying at the bamboo grove near Rajagaha,
he once met on his way Sigala, a householder, who, clasping his hands,
turned to the four quarters of the world, to the zenith above, and
to the nadir below. The Blessed One, knowing that this was done
according to the traditional religious superstition to avert evil,
asked Sigala: "Why performest thou these strange ceremonies?"
And Sigala in reply said: "Dost thou think it strange that I protect
my home against the influences of demons? I know thou wouldst fain
tell me, O Gotama Sakyamuni, whom people call the Tathagata and the
Blessed Buddha, that incantations are of no avail and possess no
saving power. But listen to me and know, that in performing this
rite I honor, reverence, and keep sacred the words of my father."
Then the Tathagata said: Thou dost well, O Sigala, to honor,
reverence, and keep sacred the words of thy father; and it is thy duty
to protect thy home, thy wife, thy children, and thy children's
children against the hurtful influences of evil spirits. I find no
fault with the performance of thy father's rite. But I find that
thou dost not understand the ceremony. Let the Tathagata, who now
speaks to thee as a spiritual father and loves thee no less than did
thy parents, explain to thee the meaning of the six directions.
"To guard thy home by mysterious ceremonies is not sufficient;
thou must guard it by good deeds. Turn to thy parents in the East,
to thy teachers in the South, to thy wife and children in the West, to
thy friends in the North, and regulate the zenith of thy religious
relations above thee, and the nadir of thy servants below thee. Such
is the religion thy father wants thee to have, and the performance
of the ceremony shall remind thee of thy duties."
And Sigala looked up to the Blessed One with reverence as to his
father and said: "Truly, Gotama, thou art the Buddha, the Blessed One,
the holy teacher. I never knew what I was doing, but now I know.
Thou hast revealed to me the truth that was hidden as one who bringeth
a lamp into the darkness. I take my refuge in the Enlightened Teacher,
in the truth that enlightens, and in the community of brethren who
have been taught the truth."


AT that time many distinguished citizens were sitting together
assembled in the town-hall and spoke in many ways in praise of the
Buddha, of the Dharma, and of the Sangha. Simha, the general-in-chief,
a disciple of the Niggantha sect, was sitting among them. And Simha
thought: "Truly, the Blessed One must be the Buddha, the Holy One. I
will go and visit him."
Then Simha, the general, went to the place where the Niggantha
chief, Nataputta, was; and having approached him, he said: "I wish,
Lord to visit the samana Gotama." Nataputta said: "Why should you,
Simha, who believe in the result of actions according to their moral
merit, go to visit the samana Gotama, who denies the result of
actions? The samana Gotama, O Simha, denies the result of actions;
he teaches the doctrine of non-action; and in this doctrine he
trains his disciples."
Then the desire to go and visit the Blessed One, which had risen
in Simha, the general, abated. Hearing again the praise of the Buddha,
of the Dharma, and of the Sangha, Simha asked the Niggantha chief a
second time; and again Nataputta persuaded him not to go.
When a third time the general heard some men of distinction extol
the merits of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha, the general
thought: "Truly the samana Gotama must be the Holy Buddha. What are
the Nigganthas to me, whether they give their consent or not? I
shall go without asking their permission to visit him, the Blessed
One, the Holy Buddha." And Simha, the general, said to the Blessed
One: "I have heard, Lord, that the samana Gotama denies the result
of actions; he teaches the doctrine of non-action, saying that the
actions of sentient beings do not receive their reward, for he teaches
annihilation and the contemptibleness of all things; and in this
doctrine he trains his disciples. Teachest thou the doing away of
the soul and the burning away of man's being? Pray tell me, Lord, do
those who speak thus say the truth, or do they bear false witness
against the Blessed One, passing off a spurious Dharma as thy Dharma?"
The Blessed One said "There is a way, Simha, in which one who says
so, is speaking truly of me; on the other hand, Simha, there is a
way in which one who says the opposite is speaking truly of me, too.
Listen, and I will tell thee: I teach, Simha, the not-doing of such
actions as are unrighteous, either by deed, or by word, or by thought;
I teach the not-bringing about of all those conditions of heart
which are evil and not good. However, I teach, Simha, the doing of
such actions as are righteous, by deed, by word, and by thought; I
teach the bringing about of all those conditions of heart which are
good and not evil.
"I teach, Simha, that all the conditions of heart which are evil and
not good, unrighteous action by deed, by word, and by thought, must be
burnt away. He who has freed himself, Simha, from all those conditions
of heart which are evil and not good, he who has destroyed them as a
palm-tree which is rooted out, so that they cannot grow up again, such
a man has accomplished the eradication of self.
"I proclaim, Simha, the annihilation of egotism, of lust, of
ill-will, of delusion. However, I do not proclaim the annihilation
of forbearance, of love, of charity, and of truth. I deem, Simha,
unrighteous actions contemptible, whether they be performed by deed,
or by word, or by thought; but I deem virtue and righteousness
Simha said: "One doubt still lurks in my mind concerning the
doctrine of the Blessed One. Will the Blessed One consent to clear the
cloud away so that I may understand the Dharma as the Blessed One
teaches it?"
The Tathagata having given his consent, Simha continued: "I am a
soldier, O Blessed One, and am appointed by the king to enforce his
laws and to wage his wars. Does the Tathagata who teaches kindness
without end and compassion with all sufferers, permit the punishment
of the criminal? and further, does the Tathagata declare that it is
wrong to go to war for the protection of our homes, our wives, our
children, and our property? Does the Tathagata teach the doctrine of a
complete self-surrender, so that I should suffer the evil-doer to do
what he pleases and yield submissively to him who threatens to take by
violence what is my own? Does the Tathagata maintain that all
strife, including such warfare as is waged for a righteous cause
should be forbidden?"
The Buddha replied: "He who deserves punishment must be punished,
and he who is worthy of favor must be favored. Yet at the same time he
teaches to do no injury to any living being but to be full of love and
kindness. These injunctions are not contradictory, for whosoever
must be punished for the crimes which he has committed, suffers his
injury not through the ill-will of the judge but on account of his
evildoing. His own acts have brought upon him the injury that the
executer of the law inflicts. When a magistrate punishes, let him
not harbor hatred in his breast, yet a murderer, when put to death,
should consider that this is the fruit of his own act. As soon as he
will understand that the punishment will purify his soul, he will no
longer lament his fate but rejoice at it."
The Blessed One continued: "The Tathagata teaches that all warfare
in which man tries to slay his brother is lamentable, but he does
not teach that those who go to war in a righteous cause after having
exhausted all means to preserve the peace are blameworthy. He must
be blamed who is the cause of war. The Tathagata teaches a complete
surrender of self, but he does not teach a surrender of anything to
those powers that are evil, be they men or gods or the elements of
nature. Struggle must be, for all life is a struggle of some kind. But
he that struggles should look to it lest he struggle in the interest
of self against truth and righteousness.
"He who struggles in the interest of self, so that he himself may be
great or powerful or rich or famous, will have no reward, but he who
struggles for righteousness and truth, will have great reward, for
even his defeat will be a victory. Self is not a fit vessel to receive
any great success; self is small and brittle and its contents will
soon be spilt for the benefit, and perhaps also for the curse, of
others. Truth, however, is large enough to receive the yearnings and
aspirations of all selves and when the selves break like soap-bubbles,
their contents will be preserved and in the truth they will lead a
life everlasting.
"He who goeth to battle, O Simha, even though it be in a righteous
cause, must be prepared to be slain by his enemies, for that is the
destiny of warriors; and should his fate overtake him he has no reason
for complaint. But he who is victorious should remember the
instability of earthly things. His success may be great, but be it
ever so great the wheel of fortune may turn again and bring him down
into the dust. However, if he moderates himself and, extinguishing all
hatred in his heart lifts his down-trodden adversary up and says to
him, Come now and make peace and let us be brothers, he will gain a
victory that is not a transient success, for its fruits will remain
forever. Great is a successful general, O Simha, but he who has
conquered self is the greater victor.
"The doctrine of the conquest of self, O Simha, is not taught to
destroy the souls of men, but to preserve them. He who has conquered
self is more fit to live, to be successful, and to gain victories than
he who is the slave of self. He whose mind is free from the illusion
of self, will stand and not fall in that battle of life. He whose
intentions are righteousness and justice, will meet with no failure,
but be successful in his enterprises and his success will endure. He
who harbors in his heart love of truth will live and not die, for he
has drunk the water of immortality. Struggle then, O general,
courageously; and fight thy battles vigorously, but be a soldier of
truth and the Tathagata will bless thee."
When the Blessed One had spoken thus, Simha, the general, said:
"Glorious Lord, glorious Lord! Thou hast revealed the truth. Great
is the doctrine of the Blessed One. Thou, indeed, art the Buddha,
the Tathagata, the Holy One. Thou art the teacher of mankind. Thou
showest us the road of salvation, for this indeed is true deliverance.
He who follows thee will not miss the light to enlighten his path.
He will find blessedness and peace. I take my refuge, Lord, in the
Blessed One, and in his doctrine, and in his brotherhood. May the
Blessed One receive me from this day forth while my life lasts as a
disciple who has taken refuge in him."
The Blessed One said: "Consider first, Simha, what thou doest. It is
becoming that persons of rank like thyself should do nothing without
due consideration."
Simha's faith in the Blessed One increased. He replied: "Had other
teachers, Lord, succeeded in making me their disciple, they would
carry around their banners through the whole city of Vesali, shouting:
"Simha the general has become our disciple! For the second time, Lord,
I take my refuge in the Blessed One, and in the Dharma, and in the
Sangha; may the Blessed One receive me from this day forth while my
life lasts as a disciple who has taken his refuge in him."
Said the Blessed One: "For a long time, Simha, offerings have been
given to the Nigganthas in thy house. Thou shouldst therefore deem
it right also in the future to give them food when they come to thee
on their alms-pilgrimage." And Simha's heart was filled with joy. He
said: "I have been told, Lord: 'The samana Gotama says: To me alone
and to nobody else should gifts be given. My pupils alone and the
pupils of no one else should receive offerings.' But the Blessed One
exhorts me to give also to the Nigganthas. Well, Lord, we shall see
what is seasonable. For the third time, Lord, I take my refuge in
the Blessed One, and in his Dharma, and in his fraternity."


THERE was an officer among the retinue of Simha who had heard of the
discourses of the Blessed One, and there was some doubt left in his
heart. This man came to the Blessed One and said: "It is said, O Lord,
that the samana Gotama denies the existence of the soul. Do they who
say so speak the truth, or do they bear false witness against the
Blessed One
And the Blessed One said: "There is a way in which those who say
so are speaking truly of me; on the other hand, there is a way in
which those who say so do not speak truly of me. The Tathagata teaches
that there is no self. He who says that the soul is his self and
that the self is the thinker of our thoughts and the actor of our
deeds, teaches a wrong doctrine which leads to confusion and darkness.
On the other hand, the Tathagata teaches that there is mind. He who
understands by soul mind, and says that mind exists, teaches the truth
which leads to clearness and enlightenment."
The officer said: "Does, then, the Tathagata maintain that two
things exist? that which we perceive with our senses and that which is
Said the Blessed One: "I say to thee, thy mind is spiritual, but
neither is the sense-perceived void of spirituality. The bodhi is
eternal and it dominates all existence as the good law guiding all
beings in their search for truth. It changes brute nature into mind,
and there is no being that cannot be transformed into a vessel of


KUTADANTA, the head of the Brahmans in the village of Danamati,
having approached the Blessed One respectfully, greeted him and
said: "I am told, O samana, that thou art the Buddha, the Holy One,
the All-knowing, the Lord of the world. But if thou wert the Buddha,
wouldst thou not come like a king in all thy glory and power?" Said
the Blessed One: "Thine eyes are holden. If the eye of thy mind were
undimmed thou couldst see the glory and the power of truth."
Said Kutadanta: "Show me the truth and I shall see it. But thy
doctrine is without consistency. If it were consistent, it would
stand; but as it is not, it will pass away." The Blessed One
replied: "The truth will never pass away."
Kutadanta said: "I am told that thou teachest the law, yet thou
tearest down religion. Thy disciples despise rites and abandon
immolation, but reverence for the gods can be shown only by
sacrifices. The very nature of religion consists in worship and
sacrifice." Said the Buddha: "Greater than the immolation of
bullocks is the sacrifice of self. He who offers to the gods his
evil desires will see the uselessness of slaughtering animals at the
altar. Blood has no cleansing power, but the eradication of lust
will make the heart pure. Better than worshiping gods is obedience
to the laws of righteousness."
Kutadanta, being of a religious disposition and anxious about his
fate after death, had sacrificed countless victims. Now he saw the
folly of atonement by blood. Not yet satisfied, however, with the
teachings of the Tathagata, Kutadanta continued: "Thou believest, O
Master, that beings are reborn; that they migrate in the evolution
of life; and that subject to the law of karma we must reap what we
sow. Yet thou teachest the non-existence of the soul! Thy disciples
praise utter self-extinction as the highest bliss of Nirvana. If I
am merely a combination of the sankharas, my existence will cease when
I die. If I am merely a compound of sensations and ideas and
desires, whither can I go at the dissolution of the body?"
Said the Blessed One: "O Brahman, thou art religious and earnest.
Thou art seriously concerned about thy soul. Yet is thy work in vain
because thou art lacking in the one thing that is needful. There is
rebirth of character, but no transmigration of a self. Thy
thought-forms reappear, but there is no ego-entity transferred. The
stanza uttered by a teacher is reborn in the scholar who repeats the
"Only through ignorance and delusion do men indulge in the dream
that their souls are separate and self-existent entities. Thy heart, O
Brahman, is cleaving still to self; thou art anxious about heaven
but thou seekest the pleasures of self in heaven, and thus thou
canst not see the bliss of truth and the immortality of truth.
"I say to thee: The Blessed One has not come to teach death, but
to teach life, and thou discernest not the nature of living and dying.
This body will be dissolved and no amount of sacrifice will save it.
Therefore, seek thou the life that is of the mind. Where self is,
truth cannot be; yet when truth comes, self will disappear. Therefore,
let thy mind rest in the truth; propagate the truth, put thy whole
will in it, and let it spread. In the truth thou shalt live forever.
Self is death and truth is life. The cleaving to self is a perpetual
dying, while moving in the truth is partaking of Nirvana which is life
Then Kutadanta said: "Where, O venerable Master, is Nirvana?"
"Nirvana is wherever the precepts are obeyed replied the Blessed One.
"Do I understand thee aright," rejoined the Brahman, "That Nirvana
is not a place, and being nowhere it is without reality?" "Thou dost
not understand me aright," said the Blessed One, "Now listen and
answer these questions: Where does the wind dwell
"Nowhere," was the reply.
Buddha retorted: "Then, sir, there is no such thing as wind."
Kutadanta made no reply; and the Blessed One asked again: "Answer
me, O Brahman, where does wisdom dwell? Is wisdom a locality?"
"Wisdom has no allotted dwelling-place replied Kutadanta. Said the
Blessed One: "Meanest thou that there is no wisdom, no
enlightenment, no righteousness, and no salvation, because Nirvana
is not a locality? As a great and mighty wind which passeth over the
world in the heat of the day, so the Tathagata comes to blow over
the minds of mankind with the breath of his love, so cool, so sweet,
so calm, so delicate; and those tormented by fever assuage their
suffering and rejoice at the refreshing breeze."
Said Kutadanta: "I feel, O Lord, that thou proclaimest a great
doctrine, but I cannot grasp it. Forbear with me that I ask again:
Tell me, O Lord, if there be no atman [soul], how can there be
immortality? The activity of the mind passeth, and our thoughts are
gone when we have done thinking."
Buddha replied: "Our thinking is gone, but our thoughts continue.
Reasoning ceases, but knowledge remains." Said Kutadanta: "How is
that? Are not reasoning and knowledge the same?"
The Blessed One explained the distinction by an illustration: "It is
as when a man wants, during the night, to send a letter, and, after
having his clerk called, has a lamp lit, and gets the letter
written. Then, when that has been done, he extinguishes the lamp.
But though the writing has been finished and the light has been put
out the letter is still there. Thus does reasoning cease and knowledge
remain; and in the same way mental activity ceases, but experience,
wisdom, and all the fruits of our acts endure."
Kutadanta continued: "Tell me, O Lord, pray tell me, where, if the
sankharas are dissolved, is the identity of my self. If my thoughts
are propagated, and if my soul migrates, my thoughts cease to be my
thoughts and my soul ceases to be my soul. Give me an illustration,
but pray, O Lord, tell me, where is the identity of my self?"
Said the Blessed One: "Suppose a man were to light a lamp; would
it burn the night through?" "Yes, it might do so," was the reply.
"Now, is it the same flame that burns in the first watch of the
night as in the second?" Kutadanta hesitated. He thought it is the
same flame, but fearing the complications of a hidden meaning, and
trying to be exact, he said: "No, it is not."
"Then," continued the Blessed One, "there are two flames, one in the
first watch and the other in the second watch." "No, sir," said
Kutadanta. "In one sense it is not the same flame, but in another
sense it is the same flame. It burns the same kind of oil, it emits
the same kind of light, and it serves the same purpose."
"Very well said the Buddha and would you call those flames the
same that have burned yesterday and are burning now in the same
lamp, filled with the same kind of oil, illuminating the same room?"
"They may have been extinguished during the day," suggested Kutadanta.
Said the Blessed One: "Suppose the flame of the first watch had been
extinguished during the second watch, would you call it the same if it
burns again in the third watch?" Replied Kutadanta: "In one sense it
is a different flame, in another it is not."
The Tathagata asked again: "Has the time that elapsed during the
extinction of the flame anything to do with its identity or
non-identity?" "No, sir," said the Brahman, "it has not. There is a
difference and an identity, whether many years elapsed or only one
second, and also whether the lamp has been extinguished in the
meantime or not."
"Well, then, we agree that the flame of today is in a certain
sense the same as the flame of yesterday, and in another sense it is
different at every moment. Moreover, the flames of the same kind,
illuminating with equal power the same kind of rooms, are in a certain
sense the same." "Yes, sir," replied Kutadanta.
The Blessed One continued: "Now, suppose there is a man who feels
like thyself, thinks like thyself, and acts like thyself, is he not
the same man as thou?" "No, sir," interrupted Kutadanta.
Said the Buddha: "Dost thou deny that the same logic holds good
for thyself that holds good for the things of the world?" Kutadanta
bethought himself and rejoined slowly: "No, I do not. The same logic
holds good universally; but there is a peculiarity about my self which
renders it altogether different from everything else and also from
other selves. There may be another man who feels exactly like me,
thinks like me, and acts like me; suppose even he had the same name
and the same kind of possessions, he would not be myself."
"True, Kutadanta, answered Buddha, he would not be thyself. Now,
tell me, is the person who goes to school one, and that same person
when he has finished his schooling another? Is it one who commits a
crime, another who is punished by having his hands and feet cut
off?" "They are the same, was the reply.
"Then sameness is constituted by continuity only?" asked the
Tathagata. "Not only by continuity," said Kutadanta, but also and
mainly by identity of character."
"Very well, concluded the Buddha, then thou agreest that persons can
be the same, in the same sense as two flames of the same kind are
called the same; and thou must recognize that in this sense another
man of the same character and product of the same karma is the same as
thou." "Well, I do," said the Brahman.
The Buddha continued: "And in this same sense alone art thou the
same today as yesterday. Thy nature is not constituted by the matter
of which thy body consists, but by thy sankharas, the forms of the
body, of sensations, of thoughts. The person is the combination of the
sankharas. Wherever they are, thou art. Whithersoever they go, thou
goest. Thus thou wilt recognize in a certain sense an identity of
thy self, and in another sense a difference. But he who does not
recognize the identity should deny all identity, and should say that
the questioner is no longer the same person as he who a minute after
receives the answer. Now consider the continuation of thy personality,
which is preserved in thy karma. Dost thou call it death and
annihilation, or life and continued life?"
"I call it life and continued life," rejoined Kutadanta, "for it
is the continuation of my existence, but I do not care for that kind
of continuation. All I care for is the continuation of self in the
other sense, which makes of every man, whether identical with me or
not, an altogether different person."
"Very well," said Buddha. "This is what thou desirest and this is
the cleaving to self. This is thy error. All compound things are
transitory: they grow and they decay. All compound things are
subject to pain: they will be separated from what they love and be
joined to what they abhor. All compound things lack a self, an
atman, an ego."
"How is that?" asked Kutadanta. "Where is thy self? asked the
Buddha. And when Kutadanta made no reply, he continued: "Thy self to
which thou cleavest is a constant change. Years ago thou wast a
small babe; then, thou wast a boy; then a youth, and now, thou art a
man. Is there any identity of the babe and the man? There is an
identity in a certain sense only. Indeed there is more identity
between the flames of the first and the third watch, even though the
lamp might have been extinguished during the second watch. Now which
is thy true self, that of yesterday, that of today, or that of
tomorrow, for the preservation of which thou clamorest?" Kutadanta was
bewildered. "Lord of the world," he said, I see my error, but I am
still confused."
The Tathagata continued: "It is by a process of evolution that
sankharas come to be. There is no sankhara which has sprung into being
without a gradual becoming. Thy sankharas are the product of thy deeds
in former existences. The combination of thy sankharas is thy self.
Wheresoever they are impressed thither thy self migrates. In thy
sankharas thou wilt continue to live and thou wilt reap in future
existences the harvest sown now and in the past."
"Verily, O Lord," rejoined Kutadanta, this is not a fair
retribution. I cannot recognize the justice that others after me
will reap what I am sowing now."
The Blessed One waited a moment and then replied: "Is all teaching
in vain? Dost thou not understand that those others are thou thyself
Thou thyself wilt reap what thou sowest, not others. Think of a man
who is ill-bred and destitute, suffering from the wretchedness of
his condition. As a boy he was slothful and indolent, and when he grew
up he had not learned a craft to earn a living. Wouldst thou say his
misery is not the product of his own action, because the adult is no
longer the same person as was the boy?
"I say to thee: Not in the heavens, not in the midst of the sea, not
if thou hidest thyself away in the clefts of the mountains, wilt
thou find a place where thou canst escape the fruit of thine evil
actions. At the same time thou art sure to receive the blessings of
thy good actions. To the man who has long been traveling and who
returns home in safety, the welcome of kinfolk, friends, and
acquaintances awaits. So, the fruits of his good works bid him welcome
who has walked in the path of righteousness, when he passes over
from the present life into the hereafter."
Kutadanta said: "I have faith in the glory and excellency of thy
doctrines. My eye cannot as yet endure the light; but I now understand
that there is no self, and the truth dawns upon me. Sacrifices
cannot save, and invocations are idle talk. But how shall I find the
path to life everlasting? I know all the Vedas by heart and have not
found the truth."
Said the Buddha: "Learning is a good thing; but it availeth not.
True wisdom can be acquired by practice only. Practice the truth
that thy brother is the same as thou. Walk in the noble path of
righteousness and thou wilt understand that while there is death in
self, there is immortality in truth."
Said Kutadanta: "Let me take my refuge in the Blessed One, in the
Dharma, and in the brotherhood. Accept me as thy disciple and let me
partake of the bliss of immortality."


AND the Blessed One thus addressed the brethren: "Those only who
do not believe, call me Gotama, but you call me the Buddha, the
Blessed One, the Teacher. And this is right, for I have in this life
entered Nirvana, while the life of Gotama has been extinguished.
Self has disappeared and the truth has taken its abode in me. This
body of mine is Gotama's body and it will be dissolved in due time,
and after its dissolution no one, neither God nor man, will see Gotama
again. But the truth remains. The Buddha will not die; the Buddha will
continue to live in the holy body of the law.
"The extinction of the Blessed One will be by that passing away in
which nothing remains that could tend to the formation of another
self. Nor will it be possible to point out the Blessed One as being
here or there. But it will be like a flame in a great body of
blazing fire. That flame has ceased; it has vanished and it cannot
be said that it is here or there. In the body of the Dhanna,
however, the Blessed One can be pointed out; for the Dharma has been
preached by the Blessed One.
"You are my children, I am your father; through me you have been
released from your sufferings. I myself having reached the other
shore, help others to cross the stream; I myself having attained
salvation, am a savior of others; being comforted, I comfort others
and lead them to the place of refuge. I shall fill with joy all the
beings whose limbs languish; I shall give happiness to those who are
dying from distress; I shall extend to them succor and deliverance.
"I was born into the world as the king of truth for the salvation of
the world. The subject on which I meditate is truth. The practice to
which I devote myself is truth. The topic of my conversation is truth.
My thoughts are always in the truth. For lo! my self has become the
truth. Whosoever comprehendeth the truth will see the Blessed One, for
the truth has been preached by the Blessed One."


THE Tathagata addressed the venerable Kassapa, to dispel the
uncertainty and doubt of his mind, and he said: "All things are made
of one essence, yet things are different according to the forms
which they assume under different impressions. As they form themselves
so they act, and as they act so they are. It is, Kassapa, as if a
potter made different vessels out of the same clay. Some of these pots
are to contain sugar, others rice, others curds and milk; others still
are vessels of impurity. There is no diversity in the clay used; the
diversity of the pots is only due to the moulding hands of the
potter who shapes them for the various uses that circumstances may
"And as all things originate from one essence, so they are
developing according to one law and they are destined to one aim which
is Nirvana. Nirvana comes to thee, Kassapa, when thou understandest
thoroughly, and when thou livest according to thy understanding,
that all things are of one essence and that there is but one law.
Hence, there is but one Nirvana as there is but one truth, not two
or three.
"And the Tathagata is the same unto all beings, differing in his
attitude only in so far as all beings are different. The Tathagata
recreates the whole world like a cloud shedding its waters without
distinction. He has the same sentiments for the high as for the low,
for the wise as for the ignorant, for the noble-minded as for the
"The great cloud full of rain comes up in this wide universe
covering all countries and oceans to pour down its rain everywhere,
over all grasses, shrubs, herbs, trees of various species, families of
plants of different names growing on the earth, on the hills, on the
mountains, or in the valleys. Then, Kassapa, the grasses, shrubs,
herbs, and wild trees suck the water emitted from that great cloud
which is all of one essence and has been abundantly poured down; and
they will, according to their nature, acquire a proportionate
development, shooting up and producing blossoms and their fruits in
season. Rooted in one and the same soil, all those families of
plants and germs are quickened by water of the same essence.
"The Tathagata, however, O Kassapa, knows the law whose essence is
salvation, and whose end is the peace of Nirvana. He is the same to
all, and yet knowing the requirements of every single being, he does
not reveal himself to all alike. He does not impart to them at once
the fullness of omniscience, but pays attention to the disposition
of various beings."


BEFORE Rahula, the son of Gotama Siddhattha and Yasodhara,
attained to the enlightenment of true wisdom, his conduct was not
always marked by a love of truth, and the Blessed One sent him to a
distant vihara to govern his mind and to guard his tongue. After
some time the Blessed One repaired to the place, and Rahula was filled
with joy.
The Blessed One ordered the boy to bring him a basin of water and to
wash his feet, and Rahula obeyed. When Rahula had washed the
Tathagata's feet, the Blessed One asked: "Is the water now fit for
"No, my Lord," replied the boy, "the water is defiled. Then the
Blessed One said: "Now consider thine own case. Although thou art my
son, and the grandchild of a king, although thou art a samana who
has voluntarily given up everything, thou art unable to guard thy
tongue from untruth, and thus defilest thou thy mind." And when the
water had been poured away, the Blessed One asked again: "Is this
vessel now fit for holding water to drink?"
"No, my Lord," replied Rahula, "the vessel, too, has become
unclean." And the Blessed One said: "Now consider thine own case.
Although thou wearest the yellow robe, art thou fit for any high
purpose when thou hast become unclean like this vessel?" Then the
Blessed One, lifting up the empty basin and whirling it round,
asked: "Art thou not afraid lest it shall fall and break?" "No, my
Lord," replied Rahula, it is cheap, its loss will not amount to much."
"Now consider thine own case, said the Blessed One. Thou art whirled
about in endless eddies of transmigration, and as thy body is made
of the same substance as other material things that will crumble to
dust, there is no loss if it be broken. He who is given to speaking
untruths is an object of contempt to the wise."
Rahula was filled with shame, and the Blessed One addressed him once
more: "Listen, and I will tell thee a parable: There was a king who
had a very powerful elephant, able to cope with five hundred
ordinary elephants. When going to war, the elephant was armed with
sharp swords on his tusks, with scythes on his shoulders, spears on
his feet, and an iron ball at his tail. The elephant-master rejoiced
to see the noble creature so well equipped, and, knowing that a slight
wound by an arrow in the trunk would be fatal, he had taught the
elephant to keep his trunk well coiled up. But during the battle the
elephant stretched forth his trunk to seize a sword. His master was
frightened and consulted with the king, and they decided that the
elephant was no longer fit to be used in battle.
"O Rahula! if men would only guard their tongues all would be
well! Be like the fighting elephant who guards his trunk against the
arrow that strikes in the center. By love of truth the sincere
escape iniquity. Like the elephant well subdued and quiet, who permits
the king to mount on his trunk, thus the man that reveres
righteousness will endure faithfully throughout his life." Rahula
hearing these words was filled with deep sorrow; he never again gave
any occasion for complaint, and forthwith he sanctified his life by
earnest exertions.


THE Blessed One observed the ways of society and noticed how much
misery came from malignity and foolish offenses done only to gratify
vanity and self-seeking pride. And the Buddha said: "If a man
foolishly does me wrong, I will return to him the protection of my
ungrudging love; the more evil comes from him, the more good shall
go from me; the fragrance of goodness always comes to me, and the
harmful air of evil goes to him."
A foolish man learning that the Buddha observed the principle of
great love which commends the return of good for evil, came and abused
him. The Buddha was silent, pitying his folly. When the man had
finished his abuse, the Buddha asked him, saying: "Son, if a man
declined to accept a present made to him, to whom would it belong?"
And he answered: "In that case it would belong to the man who
offered it."
"My son," said the Buddha thou hast railed at me, but I decline to
accept thy abuse, and request thee to keep it thyself. Will it not
be a source of misery to thee? As the echo belongs to the sound, and
the shadow to the substance, so misery will overtake the evil-doer
without fail."
The abuser made no reply, and Buddha continued: "A wicked man who
reproaches a virtuous one is like one who looks up and spits at
heaven; the spittle soils not the heaven, but comes back and defiles
his own person. The slanderer is like one who flings dust at another
when the wind is contrary; the dust does but return on him who threw
it. The virtuous man cannot be hurt and the misery that the other
would inflict comes back on himself." The abuser went away ashamed,
but he came again and took refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the


ON a certain day when the Blessed One dwelt at jetavana, the
garden of Anathapindika, a celestial deva came to him in the shape
of a Brahman whose countenance was bright and whose garments were
white like snow. The deva asked questions which the Blessed One
The deva said: "What is the sharpest sword? What is the deadliest
poison? What is the fiercest fire? What is the darkest night?" The
Blessed One replied: "A word spoken in wrath is the sharpest sword;
covetousness is the deadliest poison; passion is the fiercest fire;
ignorance is the darkest night."
The deva said: "Who gains the greatest benefit? Who loses most?
Which armor is invulnerable? What is the best weapon?" The Blessed One
replied: "He is the greatest gainer who to others, and he loses most
who greedily receives without gratitude. Patience is an invulnerable
armor; wisdom is the best weapon."
The deva said: "Who is the most dangerous thief? What is the most
precious treasure? Who is most successful in taking away by violence
not only on earth, but also in heaven? What is the securest
treasure-trove?" The Blessed One replied: "Evil thought is the most
dangerous thief; virtue is the most precious treasure. The mind
takes possession of everything not only on earth, but also in
heaven, and immortality is its securest treasure-trove."
The deva said: "What is attractive? What is disgusting? What is
the most horrible pain? What is the greatest enjoyment?" The Blessed
One replied: "Good is attractive; evil is disgusting. A bad conscience
is the most tormenting pain; deliverance is the height of bliss."
The deva asked: "What causes ruin in the world? What breaks off
friendships? What is the most violent fever? Who is the best
physician?" The Blessed One replied: "Ignorance causes the ruin of the
world. Envy and selfishness break off friendships. Hatred is the
most violent fever, and the Buddha is the best physician."
The deva then asked and said: "Now I have only one doubt to be
solved; pray, clear it away: What is it fire can neither burn, nor
moisture corrode, nor wind crush down, but is able to reform the whole
world?" The Blessed One replied: "Blessing! Neither fire, nor
moisture, nor wind can destroy the blessing of a good deed, and
blessings reform the whole world."
The deva, having heard the words of the Blessed One, was full of
exceeding joy. Clasping his hands, he bowed down before him in
reverence, and disappeared suddenly from the presence of the Buddha.


THE bhikkhus came to the Blessed One, and having saluted him with
clasped hands they said: "O Master, thou all-seeing one, we all wish
to learn; our ears are ready to hear, thou art our teacher, thou art
incomparable. Cut off our doubt, inform us of the blessed Dharma, O
thou of great understanding; speak in the midst of us, O thou who
art all-seeing, as is the thousand-eyed Lord of the gods. We will
ask the muni of great understanding, who has crossed the stream,
gone to the other shore, is blessed and of a firm mind: How does a
bhikkhu wander rightly in the world, after having gone out from his
house and driven away desire?"
The Buddha said: "Let the bhikkhu subdue his passion for human and
celestial pleasures, then, having conquered existence, he will command
the Dhartna. Such a one will wander rightly in the world. He whose
lusts have been destroyed, who is free from pride, who has overcome
all the ways of passion, is subdued, perfectly happy, and of a firm
mind. Such a one will wander rightly in the world. Faithful is he
who is possessed of knowledge, seeing the way that leads to Nirvana;
he who is not a partisan; he who is pure and virtuous, and has removed
the veil from his eyes. Such a one will wander rightly in the world."
Said the bhikkhus: "Certainly, O Bhagavat, it is so: whichever
bhikkhu lives in this way, subdued and having overcome all bonds, such
a one will wander rightly in the world."
The Blessed One said: "Whatever is to be done by him who aspires
to attain the tranquility of Nirvana let him be able and upright,
conscientious and gentle, and not proud. Let a man's pleasure be the
Dharma, let him delight in the Dharma, let him stand fast in the
Dharma, let him know how to inquire into the Dharma, let him not raise
any dispute that pollutes the Dharma, and let him spend his time in
pondering on the well-spoken truths of the Dharma.
"A treasure that is laid up in a deep pit profits nothing and may
easily be lost. The real treasure that is laid up through charity
and piety, temperance, self-control, or deeds of merit, is hid
secure and cannot pass away. it is never gained by despoiling or
wronging others, and no thief can steal it. A man, when he dies,
must leave the fleeting wealth of the world, but this treasure of
virtuous acts he takes with him. Let the wise do good deeds; they
are a treasure that can never be lost."
Then the bhikkhus praised the wisdom of the Tathagata: "Thou hast
passed beyond pain; thou art holy, O Enlightened One, we consider thee
one that has destroyed his passions. Thou art glorious, thoughtful,
and of great understanding. O thou who puttest an end to pain, thou
hast carried us across our doubt. Because thou sawest our longing
and carriedst us across our doubt, adoration be to thee, O muni, who
hast attained the highest good in the ways of wisdom. The doubt we had
before, thou hast cleared away, O thou clearly-seeing one; surely thou
art a great thinker, perfectly enlightened, there is no obstacle for
thee. All thy troubles are scattered and cut off; thou art calm,
subdued, firm, truthful.
Adoration be to thee, O noble sage, adoration be to thee, O thou
best of beings; in the world of men and gods there is none equal to
thee. Thou art the Buddha, thou art the Master, thou art the muni that
conquers Mara; after having cut off desire thou hast crossed over
and carriest this generation to the other shore."


ONE of the disciples came to the Blessed One with a trembling
heart and his mind full of doubt. And he asked the Blessed One: "O
Buddha, our Lord and Master, in what way do we give up the pleasures
of the world, if thou forbiddest us to work miracles and to attain the
supernatural? Is not Amitabha, the infinite light of revelation, the
source of innumerable miracles?"
And the Blessed One, seeing the anxiety of a truth seeking mind,
said: "O savaka, thou art a novice among the novices, and thou art
swimming on the surface of samsara. How long will it take thee to
grasp the truth? Thou hast not understood the words of the
Tathagata. The law of karma is unbreakable, and supplications have
no effect, for they are empty words."
Said the disciple: "Sayest thou there are no miraculous and
wonderful things?"
The Blessed One replied: "Is it not a wonderful thing, mysterious
and miraculous to the worldling, that a man who commits wrong can
become a saint, that by attaining true enlightenment he will find
the path of truth and abandon the evil ways of selfishness? The
bhikkhu who renounces the transient pleasures of the world for the
eternal bliss of holiness, performs the only miracle that can truly be
called a miracle. A holy man changes the curses of karma into
blessings. But the desire to perform miracles arises either from
covetousness or from vanity. The mendicant does right who does not
think: "People should salute me; who, though despised by the world,
yet cherishes no ill-will towards it. That mendicant does right to
whom omens, meteors, dreams, and signs are things abolished; he is
free from all their evils. Amitabha, the unbounded light, is the
source of wisdom, of virtue, of Buddhahood. The deeds of sorcerers and
miracle-mongers are frauds, but what is more wondrous, more
mysterious, more miraculous than Amitabha?"
"But, Master," continued the savaka, is the promise of the happy
region vain talk and a myth?"
"What is this promise?" asked the Buddha; and the disciple
replied: "There is in the west a paradise called the Pure Land,
exquisitely adorned with gold and silver and precious gems. There
are pure waters with golden sands, surrounded by pleasant walks and
covered with large lotus flowers. Joyous music is heard, and flowers
rain down three times a day. There are singing birds whose
harmonious notes proclaim the praises of religion, and in the minds of
those who listen to their sweet sounds, remembrance arises of the
Buddha, the law, and the brotherhood. No evil birth is possible there,
and even the name of hell is unknown. He who fervently and with a
pious mind repeats the words 'Amitabha Buddha' will be transported
to the happy region of this pure land, and when death draws nigh,
the Buddha, with a company of saintly followers, will stand before
him, and there will be perfect tranquility."
"In truth," said the Buddha, "there is such a happy paradise. But
the country is spiritual and it is accessible only to those that are
spiritual. Thou sayest it lies in the west. This means, look for it
where he who enlightens the world resides. The sun sinks down and
leaves us in utter darkness, the shades of night steal over us, and
Mara, the evil one, buries our bodies in the grave. Sunset is
nevertheless no extinction, and where we imagine we see extinction,
there is boundless light and inexhaustible life."
"I understand," said the savaka that the story of the Western
Paradise is not literally true."
"Thy description of paradise," the Buddha continued, "is
beautiful; yet it is insufficient and does little justice to the glory
of the pure land. The worldly can speak of it in a worldly way only;
they use worldly similes and worldly words. But the pure land in which
the pure live is more beautiful than thou canst say or imagine.
However, the repetition of the name Amitabha Buddha is meritorious
only if thou speak it with such a devout attitude of mind as will
cleanse thy heart and attune thy will to do works of righteousness. He
only can reach the happy land whose soul is filled with the infinite
light of truth. He only can live and breathe in the spiritual
atmosphere of the Western Paradise who has attained enlightenment. I
say to thee, the Tathagata lives in the pure land of eternal bliss
even now while he is still in the body. The Tathagata preaches the law
of religion unto thee and unto the whole world, so that thou and thy
brethren may attain the same peace, the same happiness."
Said the disciple: "Teach me, O Lord, the meditations to which I
must devote myself in order to let my mind enter into the paradise
of the pure land."
Buddha said: "There are five meditations. The first meditation is
the meditation of love in which thou must so adjust thy heart that
thou longest for the weal and welfare of all beings, including the
happiness of thine enemies.
"The second meditation is the meditation of pity, in which thou
thinkest of all beings in distress, vividly representing in thine
imagination their sorrows and anxieties so as to arouse a deep
compassion for them in thy soul.
"The third meditation is the meditation of joy in which thou
thinkest of the prosperity of others and rejoicest with their
"The fourth meditation is the meditation on impurity, in which
thou considerest the evil consequences of corruption, the effects of
wrongs and evils. How trivial is often the pleasure of the moment
and how fatal are its consequences!
"The fifth meditation is the meditation on serenity, in which thou
risest above love and hate, tyranny and thraldom, wealth and want, and
regardest thine own fate with impartial calmness and perfect
"A true follower of the Tathagata founds not his trust upon
austerities or rituals, but giving up the idea of self relies with his
whole heart upon Amitabha, which is the unbounded light of truth."
The Blessed One after having explained his doctrine of Amitabha, the
immeasurable light which makes him who receives it a Buddha, looked
into the heart of his disciple and saw still some doubts and
anxieties. And the Blessed One said: "Ask me, my son, the questions
which weigh upon thy soul."
The disciple said: "Can a humble monk, by sanctifying himself,
acquire the talents of supernatural wisdom called Abhinnas and the
supernatural powers called Iddhi? Show me the Iddhi-pada, the path
to the highest wisdom. Open to me the Jhanas which are the means of
acquiring samadhi, the fixity of mind which enraptures the soul. And
the Blessed One said: "Which are the Abhinnas?"
The disciple replied: "There are six Abhinnas: The celestial eye;
the celestial ear; the body at will or the power of transformation;
the knowledge of the destiny of former dwellings, so as to know former
states of existence; the faculty of reading the thoughts of others;
and the knowledge of comprehending the finality of the stream of
And the Blessed One replied: "These are wondrous things; but verily,
every man can attain them. Consider the abilities of thine own mind;
thou wert born about two hundred leagues from here and canst thou
not in thy thought, in an instant travel to thy native place and
remember the details of thy father's home? Seest thou not with thy
mind eye the roots of the tree which is shaken by the wind without
being overthrown? Does not the collector of herbs see in his mental
vision, whenever he pleases, any plant with its roots, its stern,
its fruits, leaves, and even the uses to which it can be applied?
Cannot the man who understands languages recall to his mind any word
whenever he pleases, knowing its exact meaning and import? How much
more does the Tathagata understand the nature of things; he looks into
the hearts of men and reads their thoughts. He knows the evolution
of beings and foresees their ends."
Said the disciple: "Then the Tathagata teaches that man can attain
through the Jhanas the bliss of Abhinna." And the Blessed One asked in
reply: "Which are the Jhanas through which man reaches Abhinna?"
The disciple replied: "There are four Jhanas. The first Jhana is
seclusion in which one must free his mind from sensuality; the
second Jhana is a tranquility of mind full of joy and gladness; the
third Jhana is a taking delight in things spiritual; the fourth
Jhana is a state of perfect purity and peace in which the mind is
above all gladness and grief."
"Good, my son," enjoined the Blessed One. "Be sober and abandon
wrong practices which serve only to stultify the mind." Said the
disciple: "Forbear with me, O Blessed One, for I have faith without
understanding and I am seeking the truth. O Blessed One, O
Tathagata, my Lord and Master, teach me the Iddhipada."
The Blessed One said: "There are four means by which Iddhi is
acquired: Prevent bad qualities from arising. Put away bad qualities
which have arisen. Produce goodness that does not yet exist.
Increase goodness which already exists.-Search with sincerity, and
persevere in the search. In the end thou wilt find the truth."


THE Blessed One said to Ananda: "There are various kinds of
assemblies, O Ananda; assemblies of nobles, of Brahmans, of
householders, of bhikkhus, and of other beings. When I used to enter
an assembly, I always became, before I seated myself, in color like
unto the color of my audience, and in voice like unto their voice. I
spoke to them in their language and then with religious discourse I
instructed, quickened, and gladdened them.
"My doctrine is like the ocean, having the same eight wonderful
qualities. Both the ocean and my doctrine become gradually deeper.
Both preserve their identity under all changes. Both cast out dead
bodies upon the dry land. As the great rivers, when falling into the
main, lose their names and are thenceforth reckoned as the great
ocean, so all the castes, having renounced their lineage and entered
the Sangha, become brethren and are reckoned the sons of Sakyamuni.
The ocean is the goal of all streams and of the rain from the
clouds, yet is it never overflowing and never emptied: so the Dharma
is embraced by many millions of people, yet it neither increases nor
decreases. As the great ocean has only one taste, the taste of salt,
so my doctrine has only one flavor, the flavor of emancipation. Both
the ocean and the Dharma are full of gems and pearls and jewels, and
both afford a dwelling-place for mighty beings. These are the eight
wonderful qualities in which my doctrine resembles the ocean.
"My doctrine is pure and it makes no discrimination between noble
and ignoble, rich and poor. My doctrine is like unto water which
cleanses all without distinction. My doctrine is like unto fire
which consumes all things that exist between heaven and earth, great
and small. My doctrine is like unto the heavens, for there is room
in it, ample room for the reception of all, for men and women, boys
and girls, the powerful and the lowly.
"But when I spoke, they knew me not and would say, 'Who may this
be who thus speaks, a man or a god?' Then having instructed,
quickened, and gladdened them with religious discourse, I would vanish
away. But they knew me not, even when I vanished away."


THE Blessed One thought: "I have taught the truth which is excellent
in the beginning, excellent in the middle, and excellent in the end;
it is glorious in its spirit and glorious in its letter. But simple as
it is, the people cannot understand it. I must speak to them in
their own language. I must adapt my thoughts to their thoughts. They
are like unto children, and love to hear tales. Therefore, I will tell
them stories to explain the glory of the Dharma. If they cannot
grasp the truth in the abstract arguments by which I have reached
it, they may nevertheless come to understand it, if it is
illustrated in parables.


THERE was once a lone widow who was very destitute, and having
gone to the mountain she beheld hermits holding a religious
assembly. Then the woman was filled with joy, and uttering praises,
said, It is well, holy priests! but while others give precious
things such as the ocean caves produce, I have nothing to offer."
Having spoken thus and having searched herself in vain for something
to give, she recollected that some time before she had found in a
dung-heap two coppers, so taking these she offered them forthwith as a
gift to the priesthood in charity.
The superior of the priests, a saint who could read the hearts of
men, disregarding the rich gifts of others and beholding the deep
faith dwelling in the heart of this poor widow, and wishing the
priesthood to esteem rightly her religious merit, burst forth with
full voice in a canto. He raised his right hand and said, "Reverend
priests attend!" and then he proceeded:

"The poor coppers of this widow
To all purpose are more worth
Than all the treasures of the oceans
And the wealth of the broad earth.

"As an act of pure devotion
She has done a pious deed;
She has attained salvation,
Being free from selfish greed."

The woman was mightily strengthened in her mind by this thought, and
said, It is even as the Teacher says: what I have done is as much as
if a rich man were to give up all his wealth."
And the Teacher said: "Doing good deeds is like hoarding up
treasures, and he expounded this truth in a parable: "Three
merchants set out on their travels each with his wealth; one of them
gained much, the second returned with his wealth, and the third one
came home after having lost his wealth. What is true in common life
applies also to religion.
"The wealth is the state a man has reached, the gain is heaven;
the loss of his wealth means that a man will be reborn in a lower
state, as a denizen of hell or as an animal. These are the courses
that are open to the sinner.
"He who brings back his wealth, like unto one who is born again as a
man. Those who through the exercise of various virtues become pious
householders will be born again as men, for all beings will reap the
fruit of their actions. But he who increases his wealth is like unto
one who practices eminent virtues. The virtuous, excellent man attains
in heaven to the glorious state of the gods."


THERE was a man born blind, and he said: "I do not believe in the
world of light and appearance. There are no colors, bright or
somber. There is no sun, no moon, no stars. No one has witnessed these
things." His friends remonstrated with him, but he clung to his
opinion: "What you say that you see," he objected, "are illusions.
If colors existed I should be able to touch them. They have no
substance and are not real. Everything real has weight, but I feel
no weight where you see colors."
A physician was called to see the blind man. He mixed four
simples, and when he applied them to the cataract of the blind man the
gray film melted, and his eyes acquired the faculty of sight. The
Tathagata is the physician, the cataract is the illusion of the
thought "I am," and the four simples are the four noble truths.


THERE was a householder's son who went away into a distant
country, and while the father accumulated immeasurable riches, the son
became miserably poor. And the son while searching for food and
clothing happened to come to the country in which his father lived.
The father saw him in his wretchedness, for he was ragged and
brutalized by poverty, and ordered some of his servants to call him.
When the son saw the place to which he was conducted, he thought, "I
must have evoked the suspicion of a powerful man, and he will throw me
into prison." Full of apprehension he made his escape before he had
seen his father.
Then the father sent messengers out after his son, who was caught
and brought back in spite of his cries and lamentations. Thereupon the
father ordered his servants to deal tenderly with his son, and he
appointed a laborer of his son's rank and education to employ the
lad as a helpmate on the estate. And the son was pleased with his
new situation. From the window of his palace the father watched the
boy, and when he saw that he was honest and industrious, he promoted
him higher and higher.
After some time, he summoned his son and called together all his
servants, and made the secret known to them. Then the poor man was
exceedingly glad and he was full of joy at meeting his father. Just so
little by little, must the minds of men be trained for higher truths.


THERE was a bhikkhu who had great difficulty in keeping his senses
and passions under control; so, resolving to leave the Order, he
came to the Blessed One to ask him for a release from the vows. And
the Blessed One said to the bhikkhu: "Take heed, my son, lest thou
fall a prey to the passions of thy misguided heart. For I see that
in former existences, thou hast suffered much from the evil
consequences of lust, and unless thou learnest to conquer thy
sensual desire, thou wilt in this life be ruined through thy folly.
"Listen to a story of another existence of thine, as a fish. The
fish could be seen swimming lustily in the river, playing with his
mate. She, moving in front, suddenly perceived the meshes of a net,
and slipping around escaped the danger; but he, blinded by love,
shot eagerly after her and fell straight into the mouth of the net.
The fisherman pulled the net up, and the fish, who complained bitterly
of his sad fate, saying, 'this indeed is the bitter fruit of my
folly,' would surely have died if the Bodhisattva had not chanced to
come by, and, understanding the language of the fish, took pity on
him. He bought the poor creature and said to him: 'My good fish, had I
not caught sight of thee this day, thou wouldst have lost thy life.
I shall save thee, but henceforth avoid the evil of lust.' With
these words he threw the fish into the water.
"Make the best of the time of grace that is offered to thee in thy
present existence, and fear the dart of passion which, if thou guard
not thy senses, will lead thee to destruction."


A TAILOR who used to make robes for the brotherhood was wont to
cheat his customers, and thus prided himself on being smarter than
other men. But once, on entering upon an important business
transaction with a stranger, he met his master in the way of cheating,
and suffered a heavy loss.
The Blessed One said: "This is not an isolated incident in the
greedy tailor's fate; in other incarnations he suffered similar
losses, and by trying to dupe others ultimately ruined himself. This
same greedy character lived many generations ago as a crane near a
pond, and when the dry season set in he said to the fishes with a
bland voice: care you not anxious for your future welfare There is
at present very little water and still less food in this pond. What
will you do should the whole pond become dry, in this drought?'
'Yes, indeed' said the fishes what should we do?' Replied the crane:
'I know a fine, large lake, which never becomes dry. Would you not
like me to carry you there in my beak?' When the fishes began to
distrust the honesty of the crane, he proposed to have one of them
sent over to the lake to see it; and a big carp at last decided to
take the risk for the sake of the others, and the crane carried him to
a beautiful lake and brought him back in safety. Then all doubt
vanished, and the fishes gained confidence in the crane, and now the
crane took them one by one out of the pond and devoured them on a
big varana-tree.
"There was also a lobster in the pond, and when the crane wanted
to eat him too, he said: 'I have taken all the fishes away and put
them in a fine, large lake. Come along. I shall take thee, too!'
'But how wilt thou hold me to carry me along?' asked the lobster. 'I
shall take hold of thee with my beak, said the crane. 'Thou wilt let
me fall if thou carry me like that. I will not go with thee!'
replied the lobster. 'Thou needst not fear,' rejoined the crane; 'I
shall hold thee quite tight all the way.'
"Then said the lobster to himself: 'If this crane once gets hold
of a fish, he will certainly never let him go in a lake! Now if he
should really put me into the lake it would be splendid; but if he
does not, then I will cut his throat and kill him!' So he said to
the crane: 'Look here, friend, thou wilt not be able to hold me
tight enough; but we lobsters have a famous grip. If thou wilt let
me catch hold of thee round the neck with my claws, I shall be glad to
go with thee.'
"The crane did not see that the lobster was trying to outwit him,
and agreed. So the lobster caught hold of his neck with his claws as
securely as with a pair of blacksmith's pincers, and called out:
'Ready, ready, go!' crane took him and showed him the lake, and then
turned off toward the varana-tree. 'My dear uncle!' cried the lobster,
"The lake lies that way, but thou art taking me this other way.'
Answered the crane: 'Thinkest so? Am I thy dear uncle? Thou meanest me
to understand, I suppose, that I am thy slave, who has to lift thee up
and carry thee about with him, where thou pleasest! Now cast thine eye
upon that heap of fish-bones at the root of yonder varana-tree. Just
as I have eaten those fish, every one of them, just so will I devour
thee also!'
"'Ah! those fishes got eaten through their own stupidity, answered
the lobster, 'but I am not going to let thee kill me. On the contrary,
it is thou that I am going to destroy. For thou, in thy folly, hast
not seen that I have outwitted thee. If we die, we both die
together; for I will cut off this head of thine and cast it to the
ground!' So saying, he gave the crane's neck a pinch with his claws as
with a vise.
"Then gasping, and with tears trickling from his eyes, and trembling
with the fear of death, the crane besought the lobster, saying: 'O, my
Lord! Indeed I did not intend to eat thee. Grant me my life!' 'Very
well! fly down and put me into the lake,' replied the lobster. And the
crane turned round and stepped down into the lake, to place the
lobster on the mud at its edge. Then the lobster cut the crane's
neck through as clean as one would cut a lotus-stalk with a
hunting-knife, and then entered the water!"
When the Teacher had finished this discourse, he added: "Not now
only was this man outwitted in this way, but in other existences, too,
by his own intrigues."


THERE was a rich man who used to invite all the Brahmans of the
neighborhood to his house, and, giving them rich gifts, offered
great sacrifices to the gods.
But the Blessed One said: "If a man each month repeat a thousand
sacrifices and give offerings without ceasing, he is not equal to
him who but for one moment fixes his mind upon righteousness." The
Buddha continued: "There are four kinds of offering: first, when the
gifts are large and the merit small; secondly, when the gifts are
small and the merit small; thirdly, when the gifts are small and the
merit large; and fourthly, when the gifts are large and the merit is
also large.
"The first is the case of the deluded man who takes away life for
the purpose of sacrificing to the gods, accompanied by carousing and
feasting. Here the gifts are great, but the merit is small indeed.
Next, the gifts are small and the merit is also small, when from
covetousness and an evil heart a man keeps to himself a part of that
which he intends to offer.
"The merit is great, however, while the gift is small, when a man
makes his offering from love and with a desire to grow in wisdom and
in kindness. And lastly, the gift is large and the merit is large,
when a wealthy man, in an unselfish spirit and with the wisdom of a
Buddha, gives donations and founds institutions for the best of
mankind to enlighten the minds of his fellow-men and to administer
unto their needs."


THERE was a certain Brahman in Kosambi, a wrangler and well versed
in the Vedas. As he found no one whom he regarded his equal in
debate he used to carry a lighted torch in his hand, and when asked
for the reason of his strange conduct, he replied: 'The world is so
dark that I carry this torch to light it up, as far as I can." A
samana sitting in the market-place heard these words and said: "My
friend, if thine eyes are blind to the sight of the omnipresent
light of the day, do not call the world dark. Thy torch adds nothing
to the glory of the sun and thy intention to illumine the minds of
others is as futile as it is arrogant." Whereupon the Brahman asked:
"Where is the sun of which thou speakest?" And the samana replied:
"The wisdom of the Tathagata is the sun of the mind. His radiancy is
glorious by day and night, and he whose faith is strong will not
lack light on the path to Nirvana where he will inherit bliss


WHILE the Buddha was preaching his doctrine for the conversion of
the world in the neighborhood of Savatthi, a man of great wealth who
suffered from many ailments came to him with clasped hands and said:
"World-honored Buddha, pardon me for my want of respect in not
saluting thee as I ought but I suffer greatly from obesity,
excessive drowsiness, and other complaints, so that I cannot move
without pain."
The Tathagata, seeing the luxuries with which the man was surrounded
asked him: "Hast thou a desire to know the cause of thy ailments?" And
when the wealthy man expressed his willingness to learn, the Blessed
One said: "There are five things which produce the condition of
which thou complainest: opulent dinners, love of sleep, hankering
after pleasure, thoughtlessness, and lack of occupation. Exercise
self-control at thy meals, and take upon thyself some duties that will
exercise thy abilities and make thee useful to thy fellow-men. In
following this advice thou wilt prolong thy life."
The rich man remembered the words of the Buddha and after some
time having recovered his lightness of body and youthful buoyancy
returned to the World-honored One and, coming afoot without horses and
attendants, said to him: "Master, thou hast cured my bodily
ailments; I come now to seek enlightenment of my mind."
And the Blessed One said: "The worldling nourishes his body, but the
wise man nourishes his mind. He who indulges in the satisfaction of
his appetites works his own destruction; but he who walks in the
path will have both the salvation from evil and a prolongation of


ANNABHARA, the slave of Sumana, having just cut the grass on the
meadow, saw a samana with his bowl begging for food. Throwing down his
bundle of hay he ran into the house and returned with the rice that
had been provided for his own food. The samana ate the rice and
gladdened him with words of religious comfort.
The daughter of Sumana having observed the scene from a window
called out: "Good! Annabhara, good! Very good!" Sumana hearing these
words inquired what she meant, and on being informed about Annabhara's
devotion and the words of comfort he had received from the samana,
went to his slave and offered him money to divide the bliss of his
offering. "My lord, said Annabhara, let me first ask the venerable
man." And approaching the samana, he said: "My master has asked me
to share with him the bliss of the offering I made thee of my
allowance of rice. Is it right that I should divide it with him?"
The samana replied in a parable. He said: "In a village of one
hundred houses a single light was burning. Then a neighbor came with
his lamp and lit it; and in this same way the light was communicated
from house to house and the brightness in the village was increased.
Thus the light of religion may be diffused without stinting him who
communicates it. Let the bliss of thy offering also be diffused.
Divide it."
Annabhara returned to his master's house and said to him: "I present
thee, my lord, with a share of the bliss of my offering. Deign to
accept it." Sumana accepted it and offered his slave a sum of money,
but Annabhara replied: "Not so, my lord; if I accept thy money it
would appear as if I sold thee my share. Bliss cannot be sold; I beg
thou wilt accept it as a gift." The master replied: "Brother
Annabhara, from this day forth thou shalt be free. Live with me as
my friend and accept this present as a token of my respect."


THERE was a rich Brahman, well advanced in years, who, unmindful
of the impermanence of earthly things and anticipating a long life,
had built himself a large house. The Buddha wondered why a man so near
to death had built a mansion with so many apartments, and he sent
Ananda to the rich Brahman to preach to him the four noble truths
and the eightfold path of salvation. The Brahman showed Ananda his
house and explained to him the purpose of its numerous chambers, but
to the instruction of the Buddha's teachings he gave no heed. Ananda
said: "It is the habit of I fools to say, 'I have children and
wealth.' He who says so is not even master of himself; how can he
claim possession of children, riches, and servants? Many are the
anxieties of the worldly, but they know nothing of the changes of
the future."
Scarcely had Ananda left, when the old man was stricken with
apoplexy and fell dead. The Buddha said, for the instruction of
those who were ready, to learn: "A fool, though he live in the company
of the wise, understands nothing of the true doctrine, as a spoon
tastes not the flavor of the soup. He thinks of himself only, and
unmindful of the advice of good counselors is unable to deliver


THERE was a disciple of the Blessed One, full of energy and zeal for
the truth, who, living under a vow to complete a meditation in
solitude, flagged in a moment of weakness. He said to himself: "The
Teacher said there are several kinds of men; I must belong to the
lowest class and fear that in this birth there will be neither path
nor fruit for me. What is the use of a hermit's life if I cannot by
constant endeavor attain the insight of meditation to which I have
devoted myself?" And he left the solitude and returned to the
When the brethren saw him they said to him: "Thou hast done wrong, O
brother, after taking a vow, to give up the attempt of carrying it
out"; and they took him to the Master. When the Blessed One saw them
he said: "I see, O mendicants, that you have brought this brother here
against his will. What has he done?"
"Lord, this brother, having taken the vows of sanctifying a faith,
has abandoned the endeavor to accomplish the aim of a member of the
order, and has come back to us." Then the Teacher said to him: Is it
true that thou hast given up trying?"
"It is true, O Blessed One I was the reply.
The Master said: "This present life of thine is a time of grace.
If thou fail now to reach the happy state thou wilt have to suffer
remorse in future existences. How is it, brother, that thou hast
proved so irresolute? Why, in former states of existence thou wert
full of determination. By thy energy alone the men and bullocks of
five hundred wagons obtained water in the sandy desert, and were
saved. How is it that thou now givest up?" By these few words that
brother was re-established in his resolution. But the others
besought the Blessed One, saying: "Lord! Tell us how this was."
"Listen, then, O mendicants!" said the Blessed One; and having
thus excited their attention, he made manifest a thing concealed by
change of birth. Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning in
Kasi, the Bodhisattva was born in a merchant's family; and when he
grew up, he went about trafficking with five hundred carts. One day he
arrived at a sandy desert many leagues across. The sand in that desert
was so fine that when taken in the closed fist it could not be kept in
the hand. After the sun had risen it became as hot as a mass of
burning embers, so that no man could walk on it. Those, therefore, who
had to travel over it took wood, and water, and oil, and rice in their
carts, and traveled during the night. And at daybreak they formed an
encampment and spread an awning over it, and, taking their meals
early, they passed the day lying in the shade. At sunset they
supped, and when the ground had become cool they yoked their oxen
and went on. The traveling was like a voyage over the sea: a
desert-pilot had to be chosen, and he brought the caravan safe to
the other side by his knowledge of the stars.
"Thus the merchant of our story crossed the desert. And when he
had passed over fifty-nine leagues he thought, "Now, in one more night
we shall get out of the sand, and after supper he directed the
wagons to be yoked, and so set out. The pilot had cushions arranged on
the foremost cart and lay down, looking at the stars and directing the
men where to drive. But worn out by want of rest during the long
march, he fell asleep, and did not perceive that the oxen had turned
round and taken the same road by which they had come. The oxen went on
the whole night through. Towards dawn the pilot woke up, and,
observing the stars, called out: "Stop the wagons, stop the wagons!"
The day broke just as they stopped and were drawing up the carts in
a line. Then the men cried out: "Why, this is the very encampment we
left yesterday! We have but little wood left and our water is all
gone! We are lost!" And unyoking the oxen and spreading the canopy
over their heads, they lay down in despondency, each one under his
But the Bodhisattva said to himself, "If I lose heart, all these
will perish, and walked about while the morning was yet cool. On
seeing a tuft of kusa-grass, he thought: "This could have grown only
by soaking up some water which must be beneath it." And he made them
bring a spade and dig in that spot. And they dug sixty cubits deep.
And when they had got thus far, the spade of the diggers struck on a
rock; and as soon as it struck, they all gave up in despair. But the
Bodhisattva thought, "There must be water under that rock," and
descending into the well he got upon the stone, and stooping down
applied his ear to it and tested the sound of it. He heard the sound
of water gurgling beneath, and when he got out he called his page. "My
lad, if thou givest up now, we shall all be lost. Do not lose heart.
Take this iron hammer, and go down into the pit, and give the rock a
good blow."
The lad obeyed, and though they all stood by in despair, he went
down full of determination and struck at the stone. The rock split
in two and fell below, so that it no longer blocked the stream, and
water rose till its depth from the bottom to the brim of the well
was equal to the height of a palm-tree. And they all drank of the
water, and bathed in it. Then they cooked rice and ate it, and fed
their oxen with it. And when the sun set, they put a flag in the well,
and went to the place appointed. There they sold their merchandise
at a good profit and returned to their home, and when they died they
passed away according to their deeds. And the Bodhisattva gave gifts
and did other virtuous acts, and he also passed away according to
his deeds.
After the Teacher had told the story he formed the connection by
saying in conclusion, "The caravan the Bodhisattva, the future Buddha;
the page who at that time despaired not, but broke the stone, and gave
water to the multitude, was this brother without perseverance; and the
other men were attendants on the Buddha."


BHARADVAJA, a wealthy Brahman farmer, was celebrating his
harvest-thanksgiving when the Blessed One came with his alms-bowl,
begging for food. Some of the people paid him reverence, but the
Brahman was angry and said: "O samana, it would be more fitting for
thee to go to work than to beg. I plough and sow, and having
ploughed and sown, I eat. If thou didst likewise, thou, too, wouldst
have something to eat."
The Tathagata answered him and said: "O Brahman, if too, plough
and sow, and having ploughed and sown, I eat." "Dost thou profess to
be a husbandman?" replied the Brahman. "Where, then, are thy bullocks?
Where is the seed and the plough?"
The Blessed One said: "Faith is the seed I sow: good works are the
rain that fertilizes it; wisdom and modesty are the plough; my mind is
the guiding-rein; I lay hold of the handle of the law; earnestness
is the goad I use, and exertion is my draught-ox. This ploughing is
ploughed to destroy the weeds of illusion. The harvest it yields is
the immortal fruits of Nirvana, and thus all sorrow ends." Then the
Brahman poured rice-milk into a golden bowl and offered it to the
Blessed One, saying: "Let the Teacher of mankind partake of the
rice-milk, for the venerable Gotama ploughs a ploughing that bears the
fruit of immortality."


WHEN Bhagavat dwelt at Savatthi in the Jetavana, he went out with
his alms-bowl to beg for food and approached the house of a Brahman
priest while the fire of an offering was blazing upon the altar. And
the priest said: "Stay there, O shaveling; stay there, O wretched
samana; thou art an outcast."
The Blessed One replied: "Who is an outcast? An outcast is the man
who is angry and bears hatred; the man who is wicked and hypocritical,
he who embraces error and is full of deceit. Whosoever is a provoker
and is avaricious, has evil desires, is envious, wicked, shameless,
and without fear to commit wrong, let him be known as an outcast.
Not by birth does one become an outcast, not by birth does one
become a Brahman; by deeds one becomes an outcast, by deeds one
becomes a Brahman."


ANANDA, the favorite disciple of the Buddha, having been sent by the
Lord on a mission, passed by a well near a village, and seeing Pakati,
a girl of the Matanga caste, he asked her for water to drink. Pakati
said: "O Brahman, I am too humble and mean to give thee water to
drink, do not ask any service of me lest thy holiness be contaminated,
for I am of low caste." And Ananda replied: "I ask not for caste but
for water"; and the Matanga girl's heart leaped joyfully and she
gave Ananda to drink.
Ananda thanked her and went away; but she followed him at a
distance. Having heard that Ananda was a disciple of Gotama Sakyamuni,
the girl repaired to the Blessed One and cried: "O Lord help me, and
let me live in the place where Ananda thy disciple dwells, so that I
may see him and minister unto him, for I love Ananda." The Blessed One
understood the emotions of her heart and he said: "Pakati, thy heart
is full of love, but thou understandest not thine own sentiments. It
is not Ananda that thou lovest, but his kindness. Accept, then, the
kindness thou hast seen him practice unto thee, and in the humility of
thy station practice it unto others. Verily there is great merit in
the generosity of a king when he is kind to a slave; but there is a
greater merit in the slave when he ignores the wrongs which he suffers
and cherishes kindness and good-will to all mankind. He will cease
to hate his oppressors, and even when powerless to resist their
usurpation will with compassion pity their arrogance and
supercilious demeanor.
"Blessed art thou, Pakati, for though thou art a Matanga thou wilt
be a model for noblemen and noble women. Thou art of low caste, but
Brahmans may learn a lesson from thee. Swerve not from the path of
justice and righteousness and thou wilt outshine the royal glory of
queens on the throne."


IT is reported that two kingdoms were on the verge of war for the
possession of a certain embankment which was disputed by them. And the
Buddha seeing the kings and their armies ready to fight, requested
them to tell him the cause of their quarrels. Having heard the
complaints on both sides, he said:
"I understand that the embankment has value for some of your people;
has it any intrinsic value aside from its service to your men?"
"It has no intrinsic value whatever was the reply.
The Tathagata continued: "Now when you go to battle is it not sure
that many of your men will be slain and that you yourselves, O
kings, are liable to lose your lives?" And they said: "It is sure that
many will be slain and our own lives be jeopardized."
"The blood of men, however," said Buddha, "has it less intrinsic
value than a mound of earth?" "No," the kings said, "The lives of
men and above all the lives of kings, are priceless." Then the
Tathagata concluded: care you going to stake that which is priceless
against that which has no intrinsic value whatever?-The wrath of the
two monarchs abated, and they came to a peaceable agreement.


THERE was a great king who oppressed his people and was hated by his
subjects; yet when the Tathagata came into his kingdom, the king
desired much to see him. So he went to the place where the Blessed One
stayed and asked: "O Sakyamuni, canst thou teach a lesson to the
king that will divert his mind and benefit him at the same time?"
And the Blessed One said: "I shall tell thee the parable of the
hungry dog: There was a wicked tyrant; and the god Indra, assuming the
shape of a hunter, came down upon earth with the demon Matali, the
latter appearing as a dog of enormous size. Hunter and dog entered the
palace, and the dog howled so woefully that the royal buildings
shook by the sound to their very foundations. The tyrant had the
awe-inspiring hunter brought before his throne and inquired after the
cause of the terrible bark. The hunter said, "The dog is hungry,"
whereupon the frightened king ordered food for him. All the food
prepared at the royal banquet disappeared rapidly in the dog's jaws,
and still he howled with portentous significance. More food was sent
for, and all the royal store-houses were emptied, but in vain. Then
the tyrant grew desperate and asked: 'Will nothing satisfy the
cravings of that woeful beast?' "Nothing," replied the hunter, nothing
except perhaps the flesh of all his enemies.' 'And who are his
enemies?' anxiously asked the tyrant. The hunter replied: 'The dog
will howl as long as there are people hungry in the kingdom, and his
enemies are those who practice injustice and oppress the poor." The
oppressor of the people, remembering his evil deeds, was seized with
remorse, and for the first time in his life he began to listen to
the teachings of righteousness."
Having ended his story, the Blessed One addressed the king, who
had turned pale, and said to him: "The Tathagata can quicken the
spiritual ears of the powerful, and when thou, great king, hearest the
dog bark, think of the teachings of the Buddha, and thou mayest
still learn to pacify the monster."


KING BRAHMADATTA happened to see a beautiful woman, the wife of a
Brahman merchant and, conceiving a passion for her ordered a
precious jewel secretly to be dropped into the merchant's carriage.
The jewel was missed, searched for, and found. The merchant was
arrested on the charge of stealing, and the king pretended to listen
with great attention to the defense, and with seeming regret ordered
the merchant to be executed, while his wife was consigned to the royal
Brahmadatta attended the execution in person, for such sights were
wont to give him pleasure, but when the doomed man looked with deep
compassion at his infamous judge, a flash of the Buddha's wisdom lit
up the king's passion beclouded mind; and while the executioner raised
the sword for the fatal stroke, Brahmadatta felt the effect in his own
mind, and he imagined he saw himself on the block. "Hold,
executioner!" shouted Brahmadatta, it is the king whom thou
slayest!" But it was too late! The executioner had done the bloody
deed. The king fell back in a swoon, and when he awoke a change had
come over him. He had ceased to be the cruel despot and henceforth led
a life of holiness and rectitude. The people said that the character
of the Brahman had been impressed into his mind.
O you who commit murders and robberies! The evil of self-delusion
covers your eyes. If you could see things as they are, not as they
appear, you would no longer inflict injuries and pain on your own
selves. You see not that you will have to atone for your evil deeds,
for what you sow you will reap.


THERE was a courtesan in Mathura named Vasavadatta. She happened
to see Upagutta, one of Buddha's disciples, a tall and beautiful
youth, and fell desperately in love with him. sent an invitation to
the young man, but he replied: "The time has not yet arrived when
Upagutta will visit Vasavadatta." The courtesan was astonished at
the reply, and she sent again for him, saying: "Vasavadatta desires
love, not gold, from Upagutta." But Upagutta made the same enigmatic
reply and did not come.
A few months later Vasavadatta was having a love intrigue with the
chief of the artisans. But at that time a wealthy merchant came to
Mathura, and fell in love with Vasavadatta. Seeing his wealth, and
fearing the jealousy of her other lover, she contrived the death of
the chief of the artisans, and concealed his body under a dung-hill.
When the chief of the artisans had disappeared, his relatives and
friends searched for him and found his body. Vasavadatta was tried
by a judge, and condemned to have her ears and nose, her hands and
feet cut off, and flung into a graveyard. Vasavadatta had been a
passionate girl, but kind to her servants, and one of her maids
followed her, and out of love for her former mistress ministered to
her in her agonies, and chased away the crows.
Now the time had arrived when Upagutta decided to visit Vasavadatta.
When he came, the poor woman ordered her maid to collect and hide
under a cloth her severed limbs; and he greeted her kindly, but she
said with petulance: "Once this body was fragrant like the lotus,
and I offered thee my love. In those days I was covered with pearls
and fine muslin. Now I am mangled by the executioner and covered
with filth and blood."
"Sister," said the young man, "it is not for my pleasure that I
approach thee. It is to restore to thee a nobler beauty than the
charms which thou hast lost. I have seen with mine eyes the
Tathagata walking upon earth and teaching men his wonderful
doctrine. But thou wouldst not have listened to the words of
righteousness while surrounded with temptations while under the
spell of passion and yearning for worldly pleasures. Thou wouldst
not have listened to the teachings of the Tathagata, for thy heart was
wayward, and thou didst set thy trust on the sham of thy transient
charms. The charms of a lovely form are treacherous, and quickly
lead into temptations, which have proved too strong for thee. But
there is a beauty which will not fade, and if thou wilt but listen
to the doctrine of our Lord, the Buddha, thou wilt find that peace
which thou wouldst have found in the restless world of sinful
Vasavadatta became calm and a spiritual happiness soothed the
tortures of her bodily pain; for where there is much suffering there
is also great bliss. Having taken refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma,
and the Sangha, she died in pious submission to the punishment of
her crime.


THERE was a man in Jambunada who was to be married the next day, and
he thought, "Would that the Buddha, the Blessed One, might be
present at the wedding." And the Blessed One passed by his house and
met him, and when he read the silent wish in the heart of the
bridegroom, he consented to enter. When the When the Holy One appeared
with the retinue of his many bhikkhus, the host, whose means were
limited, received them as best he could, saying: "Eat, my Lord, and
all thy congregation, according to your desire."
While the holy men ate, the meats and drinks remained
undiminished, and the host thought to himself: "How wondrous is
this! I should have had plenty for all my relatives and friends. Would
that I had invited them all. all." When this thought was in the host's
mind, all his relatives and friends entered the house; and although
the hall in the house was small there was room in it for all of
them. They sat down at the table and ate, and there was more than
enough for all of them. The Blessed One was pleased to see so many
guests full of good cheer and he quickened them and gladdened them
with words of truth, proclaiming the bliss of righteousness:
"The greatest happiness which a mortal man can imagine is the bond
of marriage that ties together two loving hearts. But there is a
greater happiness still: it is the embrace of truth. Death will
separate husband and wife, but death will never affect him who has
espoused the truth. Therefore be married unto the truth and live
with the truth in holy wedlock. The husband who loves his wife and
desires for a union that shall be everlasting must be faithful to
her so as to be like truth itself, and she will rely upon him and
revere him and minister unto him. And the wife who loves her husband
and desires a union that shall be everlasting must be faithful to
him so as to be like truth itself; and he will place his trust in her,
he will provide for her. Verily, I say unto you, their children will
become like their parents and will bear witness to their happiness.
Let no man be single, let every one be wedded in holy love to the
truth. And when Mara, the destroyer, comes to separate the visible
forms of your being, you will continue to live in the truth, and
will partake of the life everlasting, for the truth is immortal."
There was no one among the guests but was strengthened in his,
spiritual life, and recognized the sweetness of a life of
righteousness; and they took refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the


HAVING sent out his disciples, the Blessed One himself wandered from
place to place until he reached Uruvela. On his way he sat down in a
grove to rest, and it happened that in that same grove was a party
of thirty friends who were enjoying themselves with their wives; and
while they were sporting, some of their goods were stolen. Then the
whole party went in search of the thief and, meeting the Blessed One
sitting under a tree, saluted him and said: "Pray, Lord, didst thou
see the thief pass by with our goods?"
And the Blessed One said: "Which is better for you, that you go in
search for the thief or for yourselves?" And the youths cried: "In
search for ourselves!"
"Well then," said the Blessed One "sit down and I will preach the
truth to you." And the whole party sat down and they listened
eagerly to the words of the Blessed One. Having grasped the truth,
they praised the doctrine and took refuge in the Buddha.


THERE was a Brahman, a religious man and fond in his affections
but without deep wisdom. He had a son of great promise, who, when
seven years old, was struck with a fatal disease and died. The
unfortunate father was unable to control himself; he threw himself
upon the corpse and lay there as one dead. The relatives came and
buried the dead child and when the father came to himself, he was so
immoderate in his grief that he behaved like an insane person. He no
longer gave way to tears but wandered about asking for the residence
of Yamaraja, the king of death, humbly to beg of him that his child
might be allowed to return to life.
Having arrived at a great Brahman temple the sad father went through
certain religious rites and fell asleep. While wandering on in his
dream he came to a deep mountain pass where he met a number of samanas
who had acquired supreme wisdom. "Kind sirs," he said, "Can you not
tell me where the residence of Yamaraja is?" And they asked him, "Good
friend, why wouldst thou know?" Whereupon he told them his sad story
and explained his intentions. Pitying his self-delusion, the samanas
said: "No mortal man can reach the place where Yama reigns, but some
four hundred miles westward lies a great city in which many good
spirits live; every eighth day of the month Yama visits the place, and
there mayst thou see him who is the King of Death and ask him for a
The Brahman rejoicing at the news went to the city and found it as
the samanas had told him. He was admitted to the dread presence of
Yama, the King of Death, who, on hearing his request, said: "Thy son
now lives in the eastern garden where he is disporting himself; go
there and ask him to follow thee." Said the happy father: "How does it
happen that my son, without having performed one good work, is now
living in paradise?" Yamaraja replied: "He has obtained celestial
happiness not for performing good deeds, but because he died in
faith and in love to the Lord and Master, the most glorious Buddha.
The Buddha says: 'The heart of love and faith spreads as it were a
beneficent shade from the world of men to the world of gods.' This
glorious utterance is like the stamp of a king's seal upon a royal
The happy father hastened to the place and saw his be beloved
child playing with other children, all transfigured by the peace of
the blissful existence of a heavenly life. He ran up to his boy and
cried with tears running down his cheeks: "My son, my son, dost thou
not remember me, thy father who watched over thee with loving care and
tended thee in thy sickness? Return home with me to the land of the
living." But the boy, while struggling to go back to his playmates,
upbraided him for using such strange expressions as father and son.
"In my present state, he said, "I know no such words, for I am free
from delusion."
On this, the Brahman departed, and when he woke from his dream he
bethought himself of the Blessed Master of mankind, the great
Buddha, and resolved to go to him, lay bare his grief, and seek
consolation. Having arrived at the Jetavana, the Brahman told his
story and how his boy had refused to recognize him and to go home with
And the World-honored One said: "Truly thou art deluded. When man
dies the body is dissolved into its elements, but the spirit is not
entombed. It leads a higher mode of life in which all the relative
terms of father, son, wife, mother, are at an end, just as a guest who
leaves his lodging has done with it, as though it were a thing of
the past. Men concern themselves most about that which passes away;
but the end of life quickly comes as a burning torrent sweeping away
the transient in a moment. They are like a blind man set to look after
a burning lamp. A wise man, understanding the transiency of worldly
relations, destroys the cause of grief, and escapes from the
seething whirlpool of sorrow. Religious wisdom lifts a man above the
pleasures and pains of the world and gives him peace everlasting." The
Brahman asked the permission of the Blessed One to enter the community
of his bhikkhus, so as to acquire that heavenly wisdom which alone can
give comfort to an afflicted heart.


THERE was a rich man who found his gold suddenly transformed into
ashes; and he took to his bed and refused all food. A friend,
hearing of his sickness, visited the rich man and learned the cause of
his grief. And the friend said: "Thou didst not make good use of thy
wealth. When thou didst hoard it up it was not better than ashes.
Now heed my advice. Spread mats in the bazaar; pile up these ashes,
and pretend to trade with them." The rich man did as his friend had
told him, and when his neighbors asked him, "Why sellest thou
ashes?" he said: "I offer my goods for sale."
After some time a young girl, named Kisa Gotami, an orphan and
very poor, passed by, and seeing the rich man in the bazaar, said: "My
lord, why pilest thou thus up gold and silver for sale?" And the
rich man said: "Wilt thou please hand me that gold and silver?" And
Kisa Gotami took up a handful of ashes, and lo! they changed back into
gold. Considering that Kisa Gotami had the mental eye of spiritual
knowledge and saw the real worth of things, the rich man gave her in
marriage to his son, and he said: "With many, gold is no better than
ashes, but with Kisa Gotami ashes become pure gold."
And Kisa Gotami had an only son, and he died. In her grief she
carried the dead child to all her neighbors, asking them for medicine,
and the people said: "She has lost her senses. The boy is dead. At
length Kisa Gotami met a man who replied to her request: "I cannot
give thee medicine for thy child, but I know a physician who can." The
girl said: "Pray tell me, sir; who is it?" And the man replied: "Go to
Sakyamuni, the Buddha."
Kisa Gotami repaired to the Buddha and cried: "Lord and Master, give
me the medicine that will cure my boy." The Buddha answered: "I want a
handful of mustard-seed." And when the girl in her joy promised to
procure it, the Buddha added: "The mustard-seed must be taken from a
house where no one has lost a child, husband, parent, or friend." Poor
Kisa Gotami now went from house to house, and the people pitied her
and said: "Here is mustard-seed; take it!" But when she asked Did a
son or daughter, a father or mother, die in your family?" They
answered her: "Alas the living are few, but the dead are many. Do
not remind us of our deepest grief." And there was no house but some
beloved one had died in it.
Kisa Gotami became weary and hopeless, and sat down at the
wayside, watching the lights of the city, as they flickered up and
were extinguished again. At last the darkness of the night reigned
everywhere. And she considered the fate of men, that their lives
flicker up and are extinguished. And she thought to herself: "How
selfish am I in my grief! Death is common to all; yet in this valley
of desolation there is a path that leads him to immortality who has
surrendered all selfishness."
Putting away the selfishness of her affection for her child, Kisa
Gotami had the dead body buried in the forest. Returning to the
Buddha, she took refuge in him and found comfort in the Dharma,
which is a balm that will soothe all the pains of our troubled hearts.
The Buddha said: "The life of mortals in this world is troubled
and brief and combined with pain. For there is not any means by
which those that have been born can avoid dying; after reaching old
age there is death; of such a nature are living beings. As ripe fruits
are early in danger of falling, so mortals when born are always in
danger of death. As all earthen vessels made by the potter end in
being broken, so is the life of mortals. Both young and adult, both
those who are fools and those who are wise, all fall into the power of
death; all are subject to death.
"Of those who, overcome by death, depart from life, a father
cannot save his son, nor kinsmen their relations. Mark I while
relatives are looking on and lamenting deeply, one by one mortals
are carried off, like an ox that is led to the slaughter. So the world
is afflicted with death and decay, therefore the wise do not grieve,
knowing the terms of the world. In whatever manner people think a
thing will come to pass, it is often different when it happens, and
great is the disappointment; see, such are the terms of the world.
"Not from weeping nor from grieving will any one obtain peace of
mind; on the contrary, his pain will be the greater and his body
will suffer. He will make himself sick and pale, yet the dead are
not saved by his lamentation. People pass away, and their fate after
death will be according to their deeds. If a man live a hundred years,
or even more, he will at last be separated from the company of his
relatives, and leave the life of this world. He who seeks peace should
draw out the arrow of lamentation, and complaint, and grief. He who
has drawn out the arrow and has become composed will obtain peace of
mind; he who has overcome all sorrow will become free from sorrow, and
be blessed."


SOUTH of Savatthi is a great river, on the banks of which lay a
hamlet of five hundred houses. Thinking of the salvation of the
people, the World-honored One resolved to go to the village and preach
the doctrine. Having come to the riverside he sat down beneath a tree,
and the villagers seeing the glory of his appearance approached him
with reverence; but when he began to preach, they believed him not.
When the world-honored Buddha had left Savatthi Sariputta felt a
desire to see the Lord and to hear him preach. Coming to the river
where the water was deep and the current strong, he said to himself:
"This stream shall not prevent me. I shall go and see the Blessed One,
and he stepped upon the water which was as firm under his feet as a
slab of granite. When he arrived at a place in the middle of the
stream where the waves were high, Sariputta's heart gave way, and he
began to sink. But rousing his faith and renewing his mental effort,
he proceeded as before and reached the other bank.
The people of the village were astonished to see Sariputta, and they
asked how he could cross the stream where there was neither a bridge
nor a ferry. Sariputta replied: "I lived in ignorance until I heard
the voice of the Buddha. As I was anxious to hear the doctrine of
salvation, I crossed the river and I walked over its troubled waters
because I had faith. Faith. nothing else, enabled me to do so, and now
I am here in the bliss of the Master's presence."
The World-honored One added: "Sariputta, thou hast spoken well.
Faith like thine alone can save the world from the yawning gulf of
migration and enable men to walk dryshod to the other shore." And
the Blessed One urged to the villagers the necessity of ever advancing
in the conquest of sorrow and of casting off all shackles so as to
cross the river of worldliness and attain deliverance from death.
Hearing the words of the Tathagata, the villagers were filled with joy
and believing in the doctrines of the Blessed One embraced the five
rules and took refuge in his name.


AN old bhikkhu of a surly disposition was afflicted with a loathsome
disease the sight and smell of which was so nauseating that no one
would come near him or help him in his distress. And it happened
that the World-honored One came to the vihara in which the unfortunate
man lay; hearing of the case he ordered warm water to be prepared
and went to the sick-room to administer unto the sores of the
patient with his own hand, saying to his disciples:
"The Tathagata has come into the world to befriend the poor, to
succor the unprotected, to nourish those in bodily affliction, both
the followers of the Dharma and unbelievers, to give sight to the
blind and enlighten the minds of the deluded, to stand up for the
rights of orphans as well as the aged, and in so doing to set an
example to others. This is the consummation of his work, and thus he
attains the great goal of life as the rivers that lose themselves in
the ocean."
The World-honored One administered unto the sick bhikkhu daily so
long as he stayed in that place. And the governor of the city came
to the Buddha to do him reverence and having heard of the service
which the Lord did in the vihara asked the Blessed One about the
previous existence of the sick monk, and the Buddha said:
"In days gone by there was a wicked king who used to extort from his
subjects all he could get; and he ordered one of his officers to lay
the lash on a man of eminence. The officer little thinking of the pain
he inflicted upon others, obeyed; but when the victim of the king's
wrath begged for mercy, he felt compassion and laid the whip lightly
upon him. Now the king was reborn as Devadatta, who was abandoned by
all his followers, because they were no longer willing to stand his
severity, and he died miserable and full of penitence. The officer
is the sick bhikkhu, who having often given offense to his brethren in
the vihara was left without assistance in his distress. The eminent
man, however, who was unjustly beaten and begged for mercy was the
Bodhisattva; he has been reborn as the Tathagata. It is now the lot of
the Tathagata to help the wretched officer as he had mercy on him."
And the World-honored One repeated these lines: "He who inflicts
pain on the gentle, or falsely accuses the innocent, will inherit
one of the ten great calamities. But he who has learned to suffer with
patience will be purified and will be the chosen instrument for the
alleviation of suffering."
The diseased bhikkhu on hearing these words turned to the Buddha,
confessed his ill-natured temper and repented, and with a heart
cleansed from error did reverence unto the Lord.


WHILE the Blessed One was residing in the Jetavana, there was a
householder living in Savatthi known to all his neighbors as patient
and kind, but his relatives were wicked and contrived a plot to rob
him. One day they came to the householder and by worrying him with all
kinds of threats took away a goodly portion of his property. He did
not go to court, nor did he complain, but tolerated with great
forbearance the wrongs he suffered. The neighbors wondered and began
to talk about it, and rumors of the affair reached the ears of the
brethren in Jetavana. While the brethren discussed the occurrence in
the assembly hall, the Blessed One entered and asked "What was the
topic of your conversation?" And they told him.
Said the Blessed One: "The time will come when the wicked
relatives will find their punishment. O brethren, this is not the
first time that this occurrence took place; it has happened before,"
and he told them a world-old tale: Once upon a time, when
Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisattva was born in the
Himalaya region as an elephant. He grew up strong and big, and
ranged the hills and mountains, the peaks and caves of the torturous
woods in the valleys. Once as he went he saw a pleasant tree, and took
his food, standing under it. Then some impertinent monkeys came down
out of the tree, and jumping on the elephant's back, insulted and
tormented him greatly; they took hold of his tusks, pulled his tail
and disported themselves, thereby causing him much annoyance. The
Bodhisattva, being full of patience, kindliness and mercy, took no
notice at all of their misconduct which the monkeys repeated again and
"One day the spirit that lived in the tree, standing upon the
tree-trunk, addressed the elephant saying, 'My lord elephant, why dost
thou put up with the impudence of these bad monkeys?' And he asked the
question in a couplet as follows:

"'Why do you patiently endure each freak
These mischievous and selfish monkeys wreak?'

"The Bodhisattva, on hearing this, replied, If, Tree sprite, I
cannot endure these monkeys' ill treatment without abusing their
birth, lineage and persons, how can I walk in the eightfold noble
path? But these monkeys will do the same to others thinking them to be
like me. If they do it to any rogue elephant, he will punish them
indeed, and I shall be delivered both from their annoyance and the
guilt of having done harm to others.' Saying this he repeated
another stanza:

"If they will treat another one like me,
He will destroy them; and I shall be free.

"A few days after, the Bodhisattva went elsewhere, and another
elephant, a savage beast, came and stood in his place. The wicked
monkeys thinking him to be like the old one, climbed upon his back and
did as before. The rogue elephant seized the monkeys with his trunk,
threw them upon the ground, gored them with his tusk and trampled them
to mincemeat under his feet."
When the Master had ended this teaching, he declared the truths, and
identified the births, saying: "At that time the mischievous monkeys
were the wicked relatives of the good man, the rogue elephant was
the one who will punish them, but the virtuous noble elephant was
the Tathagata himself in a former incarnation."
After this discourse one of the brethren rose and asked leave to
propose a question and when the permission was granted he said: "I
have heard the doctrine that wrong should be met with wrong and the
evil doer should be checked by being made to suffer, for if this
were not done evil would increase and good would disappear. What shall
we do?" Said the Blessed One: "Nay, I will tell you You who have
left the world and have adopted this glorious faith of putting aside
selfishness, you shall not do evil for evil nor return hate for
hate. Neither think that you can destroy wrong by retaliating evil for
evil and thus increasing wrong. Leave the wicked to their fate and
their evil deeds will sooner or later in one way or another bring on
their own punishment." And the Tathagata repeated these stanzas:

"Who harms the man who does no harm,
Or strikes at him who strikes him not,
Shall soon some punishment incur
Which his own wickedness begot,-

"One of the gravest ills in life,
Either a loathsome dread disease,
Or sad old age, or loss of mind,
Or wretched pain without surcease,

"Or conflagration, loss of wealth;
Or of his nearest kin he shall
See some one die that's dear to him,
And then he'll be reborn in hell."


WHEN the Blessed One was residing on the mounted called Vulture's
Peak, near Rajagaha, Ajatasattu king of Magadha, who reigned in the
place of Bimbisara, planned an attack on the Vajjis, and he said to
Vassakara, his prime mister: "I will root out the Vajjis, mighty
though they be. I will destroy the Vajjis; I will bring them to
utter ruin! Come now, O Brahman, and go to the Blessed One; inquire in
my name for his health, and tell him my purpose. Bear carefully in
mind what the Blessed One may say, and repeat it to me, for the
Buddhas speak nothing untrue."
When Vassakara, the prime minister, had greeted the Blessed One
and delivered his message, the venerable Ananda stood behind the
Blessed One and fanned him, and the Blessed One said to him: "Hast
thou heard, Ananda, that the Vajjis hold full and frequent public
assemblies?" He replied, "Lord, so I have heard."
"So long, Ananda," said the Blessed One, "as the Vajjis hold these
full and frequent public assemblies, they may be expected not to
decline, but to prosper. So long as they meet together in concord,
so long as they honor their elders, so long as they respect womanhood,
so long as they remain religious, performing all proper rites, so long
as they extend the rightful protection, defense and support to the
holy ones, the Vajjis may be expected not to decline, but to prosper."
Then the Blessed One addressed Vassakara and said: "When I stayed, O
Brahman, at Vesali, I taught the Vajjis these conditions of welfare,
that so long as they should remain well instructed, so long as they
will continue in the right path, so long as they live up to the
precepts of righteousness, we could expect them not to decline, but to
As soon as the king's messenger had gone, the Blessed One had the
brethren, that were in the neighborhood of Rajagaha, assembled in
the service-hall and addressed them, saying: "I will teach you, O
bhikkhus, the conditions of the welfare of a community. Listen well,
and I will speak.
"So long, O bhikkhus, as the brethren hold full and frequent
assemblies, meeting in concord, rising in concord, and attending in
concord to the affairs of the Sangha; so long as they, O bhikkhus,
do not abrogate that which experience has proved to be good, and
introduce nothing except such things as have been carefully tested; so
long as their elders practice justice; so long as the brethren esteem,
revere, and support their elders, and hearken unto their words; so
long as the brethren are not under the influence of craving, but
delight in the blessings of religion, so that good and holy men
shall come to them and dwell among them in quiet; so long as the
brethren shall not be addicted to sloth and idleness; so long as the
brethren shall exercise themselves in the sevenfold higher wisdom of
mental activity, search after truth, energy, joy, modesty,
self-control, earnest contemplation, and equanimity of mind, so long
the Sangha may be expected to prosper. Therefore, O bhikkhus, be
full of faith, modest in heart, afraid of sin, anxious to learn,
strong in energy, active in mind, and full of wisdom.


THE Blessed One proceeded with a great company of the brethren to
Nalanda; and there he stayed in a mango grove. Now the venerable
Sariputta came to the place where the Blessed One was, and having
saluted him, took his seat respectfully at his side, and said:
"Lord! such faith have I in the Blessed One, that methinks there never
has been, nor will there be, nor is there now any other, who is
greater or wiser than the Blessed One, that is to say, as regards
the higher wisdom."
Replied the Blessed One: "Grand and bold are the words of thy mouth,
Sariputta: verily, thou hast burst forth into a song of ecstasy!
Surely then thou hast known all the Blessed Ones who in the long
ages of the past have been holy Buddhas?" "Not so, O Lord!" said
And the Lord continued: "Then thou hast perceived all the Blessed
Ones who in the long ages of the future shall be holy Buddhas?" "Not
so, O Lord!"
"But at least then, O Sariputta, thou knowest me as the holy
Buddha now alive, and hast penetrated my mind." "Not even that, O
"Thou seest then, Sariputta, that thou knowest not the hearts of the
holy Buddhas of the past nor the hearts of those of the future. Why,
therefore, are thy words so grand and bold? Why burstest thou forth
into such a song of ecstasy?"
"O Lord! I have not the knowledge of the hearts of all the Buddhas
that have been and are to come, and now are. I only know the lineage
of the faith. Just as a king, Lord, might have a border city, strong
in its foundations, strong in its ramparts and with one gate only; and
the king might have a watchman there, clever, expert, and wise, to
stop all strangers and admit only friends. And on going over the
approaches all about the city, he might not be able so to observe
all the joints and crevices in the ramparts of that city as to know
where such a small creature as a cat could get out. That might well
be. Yet all living beings of larger size that entered or left the
city, would have to pass through that gate. Thus only is it, Lord,
that I know the lineage of the faith. I know that the holy Buddhas
of the past, putting away all lust, ill-will, sloth, pride, and doubt,
knowing all those mental faults which make men weak, training their
minds in the four kinds of mental activity, thoroughly exercising
themselves in the sevenfold higher wisdom, received the full
fruition of Enlightenment. And I know that the holy Buddhas of the
times to come will do the same. And I know that the Blessed One, the
holy Buddha of today, has done so now."
"Great is thy faith, O Sariputta," replied the Blessed One, "but
take heed that it be well grounded."


WHEN the Blessed One had stayed as long as convenient at Nalanda, he
went to Pataliputta, the frontier town of Magadha; and when the
disciples at Pataliputta heard of his arrival, they invited him to
their village rest-house. And the Blessed One robed himself, took
his bowl and went with the brethren to the rest-house. There he washed
his feet, entered the hall, and seated himself against the center
pillar, with his face towards the east. The brethren, also, having
washed their feet, entered the hall, and took their seats round the
Blessed One, against the western wall, facing the east. And the lay
devotees of Pataliputta, having also washed their feet, entered the
hall, and took their seats opposite the Blessed One against the
eastern wall, facing towards the west.
Then the Blessed One addressed the lay-disciples of Pataliputta, and
he said: "Fivefold O householders, is the loss of the wrong-doer
through his want of rectitude. In the first place, the wrong-doer,
devoid of rectitude, falls into great poverty through sloth; in the
next place, his evil repute gets noised abroad; thirdly, whatever
society he enters, whether of Brahmans, nobles, heads of houses, or
samanas, he enters shyly and confusedly; fourthly, he is full of
anxiety when he dies; and lastly, on the dissolution of the body after
death, his mind remains in an unhappy state. Wherever his karma
continues, there will be suffering and woe. This, O householders, is
fivefold loss of the evil-doer!
"Fivefold, O householders, is the gain of the well-doer through
his practice of rectitude. In the first place the well doer, strong in
rectitude, acquires property through his industry; in the next
place, good reports of him are spread abroad; thirdly, whatever
society he enters, whether of nobles, Brahmans, heads of houses, or
members of the order, he enters with confidence and self-possession;
fourthly, he dies without anxiety; and, lastly, on the dissolution
of the body after death, his mind remains in a happy state. Wherever
his karma continues, there will be heavenly bliss and peace. This, O
householders, is the fivefold gain of the well doer." When the Blessed
One had taught the disciples, and incited them, and roused them, and
gladdened them far into the night with religious edification, he
dismissed them, saying, "The night is far spent, O householders. It is
time for you to do what ye deem most fit."
"Be it so, Lord!" answered the disciples of Pataliputta, and
rising from their seats, they bowed to the Blessed One, and keeping
him on their right hand as they passed him, they departed thence.
While the Blessed One stayed at Pataliputta, the king of Magadha
sent a messenger to the governor of Pataliputta to raise
fortifications for the security of the town. The Blessed One seeing
the laborers at work predicted the future greatness of the place,
saying: "The men who build the fortress act as if they had consulted
higher powers. For this city of Pataliputta will be a dwelling-place
of busy men and a center for the exchange of all kinds of goods. But
three dangers hang over Pataliputta, that of fire, that of water, that
of dissension."
When the governor heard of the prophecy of Pataliputta's future,
he greatly rejoiced and named the city-gate through which the Buddha
had gone towards the river Ganges, "The Gotama Gate." Meanwhile the
people living on the banks of the Ganges arrived in great numbers to
pay reverence to the Lord of the world; and many persons asked him
to do them the honor to cross over in their boats. But the Blessed One
considering the number of the boats and their beauty did not want to
show any partiality, and by accepting the invitation of one to
offend all the others. He therefore crossed the river without any
boat, signifying thereby that the rafts of asceticism and the gaudy
gondolas of religious ceremonies were not staunch enough to weather
the storms of samsara, while the Tathagata can walk dry-shod over
the ocean of worldliness. And as the city gate was called after the
name of the Tathagata so the people called this passage of the river
"Gotama Ford."


THE Blessed One proceeded to the village Nadika with a great company
of brethren and there he stayed at the Brick Hall. And the venerable
Ananda went to the Blessed One and mentioning to him the names of
the brethren and sisters that had died, anxiously inquired about their
fate after death, whether they had been reborn in animals or in
hell, or as ghosts, or in any place of woe.
The Blessed One replied to Ananda and said: "Those who have died
after the complete destruction of the three bonds of lust, of
covetousness and of the egotistical cleaving to existence, need not
fear the state after death. They will not be reborn in a state of
suffering; their minds will not continue as a karma of evil deeds or
sin, but are assured of final salvation.
"When they die, nothing will remain of them but their good thoughts,
their righteous acts, and the bliss that proceeds from truth and
righteousness. As rivers must at last reach the distant main, so their
minds will be reborn in higher states of existence and continue to
be pressing on to their ultimate goal which is the ocean of truth, the
eternal peace of Nirvana. Men are anxious about death and their fate
after death; but consider, it is not at all strange, Ananda, that a
human being should die. However, that thou shouldst inquire about
them, and having heard the truth still be anxious about the dead, this
is wearisome to the Blessed One. I will, therefore, teach thee the
mirror of truth and let the faithful disciple repeat it:
"'Hell is destroyed for me, and rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or
in any place of woe. I am converted; I am no longer liable to be
reborn in a state of suffering, and am assured of final salvation.'
"What, then, Ananda, is this mirror of truth? It is the
consciousness that the elect disciple is in this world possessed of
faith in the Buddha, believing the Blessed One to be the Holy One, the
Fully-enlightened One, wise, upright, happy, world-knowing, supreme,
the Bridler of men's wayward hearts, the Teacher of gods and men,
the blessed Buddha. It is further the consciousness that the
disciple is possessed of faith in the truth believing the truth to
have been proclaimed by the Blessed One, for the benefit of the world,
passing not away, welcoming all, leading to salvation, to which
through truth the wise will attain, each one by his own efforts.
"And, finally, it is the consciousness that the disciple is
possessed of faith in the order, believing in the efficacy of a
union among those men and women who are anxious to walk in the noble
eightfold path; believing this church of the Buddha, of the righteous,
the upright, the just, the law abiding, to be worthy of honor, of
hospitality, of gifts, and of reverence; to be the supreme
sowing-ground of merit for the world; to be possessed of the virtues
beloved by the good, virtues unbroken, intact, unspotted, unblemished,
virtues which make men truly free, virtues which are praised by the
wise, are untarnished by the desire of selfish aims, either now or
in a future life, or by the belief in the efficacy of outward acts,
and are conducive to high and holy thought. This is the mirror of
truth which teaches the straightest way to enlightenment which is
the common goal of all living creatures. He who possesses the mirror
of truth is free from fear; he will find comfort in the tribulations
of life, and his life will be a blessing to all his fellow-creatures."


THEN the Blessed One proceeded with a great number of brethren to
Vesali, and he stayed at the grove of the courtesan Ambapali. And he
said to the brethren: "Let a brother, O bhikkhus, be mindful and
thoughtful. Let a brother, whilst in the world, overcome the grief
which arises from bodily craving, from the lust of sensations, and
from the errors of wrong reasoning. Whatever you do, act always in
full presence of mind. Be thoughtful in eating and drinking, in
walking or standing, in sleeping or waking, while talking or being
When the courtesan Ambapali heard that the Blessed One was staying
in her mango grove, she was exceedingly glad and went in a carriage as
far as the ground was passable for carriages. There she alighted and
thence proceeding to the place where the Blessed One was, she took her
seat respectfully at his feet on one side. As a prudent woman goes
forth to perform her religious duties, so she appeared in a simple
dress without any ornaments, yet beautiful to look upon. The Blessed
One thought to himself: "This woman moves in worldly circles and is
a favorite of kings and princes; yet is her heart calm and composed.
Young in years, rich, surrounded by pleasures, she is thoughtful and
steadfast. This, indeed, is rare in the world. Women, as a rule, are
scant in wisdom and deeply immersed in vanity; but she, although
living in luxury, has acquired the wisdom of a master, taking
delight in piety, and able to receive the truth in its completeness."
When she was seated, the Blessed One instructed, aroused, and
gladdened her with religious discourse. As she listened to the law,
her face brightened with delight. Then she rose and said to the
Blessed One: "Will the Blessed One do me the honor of taking his meal,
together with the brethren, at my house tomorrow?" And the Blessed One
gave, by silence, his consent.
Now, the Licchavi, a wealthy family of princely rank, hearing that
the Blessed One had arrived at Vesali and was staying at Ambapali's
grove, mounted their magnificent carriages, and proceeded with their
retinue to the place where the Blessed One was. The Licchavi were
gorgeously dressed in bright colors and decorated with costly
jewels. And Ambapali drove up against the young Licchavi, axle to
axle, wheel to wheel, and yoke to yoke, and the Licchavi said to
Ambapali, the courtesan: "How is it, Ambapali, that you drive up
against us thus?"
"My lords," said she, "I have just invited the Blessed One and his
brethren for their tomorrow's meal." And the princes replied:
"Ambapali! give up this meal to us for a hundred thousand."
"My lords, were you to offer all Vesali with its subject
territory, I would not give up so great an honor!"
Then the Licchavi went on to Ambapali's grove. When the Blessed
One saw the Licchavi approaching in the distance, he addressed the
brethren, and said: "O brethren, let those of the brethren who have
never seen the gods gaze upon this company of the Licchavi, for they
are dressed gorgeously, like immortals."
And when they had driven as far the ground was passable for
carriages, the Licchavi alighted and went on foot to the place where
the Blessed One was, taking their seats respectfully by his side.
And when they were thus seated, the Blessed One instructed, aroused,
and gladdened them with religious discourse. Then they addressed the
Blessed One and said: "Will the Blessed One do us the honor of
taking his meal, together with the brethren, at our palace tomorrow?"
"O Licchavi," said the Blessed One, I have promised to dine tomorrow
with Ambapali, the courtesan." Then the Licchavi, expressing their
approval of the words of the Blessed One, arose from their seats and
bowed down before the Blessed One, and, keeping him on their right
hand as they passed him, they departed thence; but when they came
home, they cast up their hands, saying: "A worldly woman has outdone
us; we have been left behind by a frivolous girl!"
At the end of the night Ambapali, the courtesan, made ready in her
mansion sweet rice and cakes, and on the next day announced through
a messenger the time to the Blessed One, saying, "The hour, Lord,
has come, and the meal is ready!" And the Blessed One robed himself
early in the morning, took his bowl, and went with the brethren to the
place where Ambapali's dwelling-house was; and when they had come
there they seated themselves on the seats prepared for them. Ambapali,
the courtesan, set the sweet rice and cakes before the order, with the
Buddha at their head, and waited upon them till they refused to take
When the Blessed One had finished his meal, the courtesan had a
low stool brought, and sat down at his side, and addressed the Blessed
One, and said: "Lord, I present this mansion to the order of bhikkhus,
of which the Buddha is the chief." And the Blessed One accepted the
gift; and after instructing, arousing, and gladdening her with
religious edification, he rose from his seat and departed thence.


WHEN the Blessed One had remained as long as he wished at Ambapali's
grove, he went to Beluva, near Vesali. There the Blessed One addressed
the brethren, and said: "O mendicants, take up your abode for the
rainy season round about Vesali, each one according to the place where
his friends and near companions may live. I shall enter upon the rainy
season here at Beluva."
When the Blessed One had thus entered upon the rainy season there
fell upon him a dire sickness and sharp pains came upon him even
unto death. But the Blessed One, mindful and self-possessed, bore
his ailments without complaint. Then this thought occurred to the
Blessed. It would not be right for me to pass away from life without
addressing the disciples, without taking leave of the order. Let me
now, by a strong effort of the will, subdue this sickness, and keep my
hold on life till the allotted time have come." And the Blessed One by
a strong effort of the will subdued the sickness, and kept his hold on
life till the time he fixed upon should come. And the sickness abated.
Thus the Blessed One began to recover; and when he had quite got rid
of the sickness, he went out from the monastery, and sat down on a
seat spread out in the open air. And the venerable Ananda, accompanied
by many other disciples, approached where the Blessed One was, saluted
him, and taking a seat respectfully on one side, said: "'I have
beheld, Lord, how the Blessed One was in health, and I have beheld how
the Blessed One had to suffer. And though at the sight of the sickness
of the Blessed One my body became weak as a creeper, and the horizon
became dim to me, and my faculties were no longer clear, yet
notwithstanding I took some little comfort from the thought that the
Blessed One would not pass away from existence until at least he had
left instructions as touching the order."
The Blessed One addressed Ananda in behalf of the order, saying:
"What, then, Ananda, does the order expect of me? I have preached
the truth without making any distinction between doctrine hidden or
revealed; for in respect of the truth, Ananda, the Tathagata has no
such thing as the closed fist of a teacher, who keeps some things
"Surely, Ananda, should there be any one who harbor the thought, "It
is I who will lead the brotherhood,' or, 'The order is dependent
upon me,' he should lay down instructions in any matter concerning the
order. Now the Tathagata, Ananda, thinks not that it is he who
should lead the brotherhood, or that the order is dependent upon
him. Why, then, should the Tathagata leave instructions in any
matter concerning the order?
"I am now grown old, O Ananda, and full of years; my journey is
drawing to its close, I have reached the sum of my days, I am
turning eighty years of age. Just as a wornout cart can not be made to
move along without much difficulty, so the body of the Tathagata can
only be kept going with much additional care. It is only when the
Tathagata, Ananda, ceasing to attend to any outward thing, becomes
plunged in that devout meditation of heart which is concerned with
no bodily object, it is only then that the body of the Tathagata is at
"Therefore, O Ananda, be ye lamps unto yourselves. Rely on
yourselves, and do not rely on external help. Hold fast to the truth
as a lamp. Seek salvation alone in the truth. Look not for
assistance to any one besides yourselves.
"And how, Ananda, can a brother be a lamp unto himself, rely on
himself only and not on any external help, holding fast to the truth
as his lamp and seeking salvation in the truth alone, looking not
for assistance to any one besides himself? Herein, O Ananda, let a
brother, as he dwells in the body, so regard the body that he, being
strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in the world, overcome
the grief which arises from the body's cravings. While subject to
sensations let him continue so to regard the sensations that he, being
strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in the world, overcome
the grief which arises from the sensations. And so, also, when he
thinks or reasons, or feels, let him so regard his thoughts that being
strenuous, thoughtful and mindful he may, whilst in the world,
overcome the grief which arises from the craving due to ideas, or to
reasoning, or to feeling.
"Those who, either now or after I am dead, shall be lamps unto
themselves, relying upon themselves only and not relying upon any
external help, but holding fast to the truth as their lamp, and
seeking their salvation in the truth alone, and shall not look for
assistance to any one besides themselves, it is they, Ananda, among my
bhikkhus, who shall reach the very topmost height! But they must be
anxious to learn."


SAID the Tathagata to Ananda: "In former years, Ananda, Mara, the
Evil One, approached the holy Buddha three times to tempt him. And
now, Ananda, Mara, the Evil One, came again today to the place where I
was, and, standing beside me, addressed me in the same words as he did
when I was resting under the shepherd's Nigrodha tree on the bank of
the Neranjara River: 'Be greeted, thou Holy One. Thou hast attained
the highest bliss and it is time for thee to enter into the final
Nirvana.'-And when Mara had thus spoken, Ananda, I answered him and
said: 'Make thyself happy, O wicked one; the final extinction of the
Tathagata shall take place before long."
The venerable Ananda addressed the Blessed One and said: "Vouchsafe,
Lord, to remain with us, O Blessed One I for the good and the
happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for
the good and the gain of mankind!" Said the Blessed One: "Enough
now, Ananda, beseech not the Tathagata!"
And again, a second time, the venerable Ananda besought the
Blessed One in the same words. He received from the Blessed One the
same reply. And again, the third time, the venerable Ananda besought
the Blessed One to live longer; and the Blessed One said: "Hast thou
faith, Ananda?" Said Ananda: "I have, my Lord!"
The Blessed One, seeing the quivering eyelids of Ananda, read the
deep grief in the heart of his beloved disciple, and he asked again:
"Hast thou, indeed, faith, Ananda?" And Ananda said: "I have faith, my
Then the Blessed One continued: "If thou hast faith, Ananda in the
wisdom of the Tathagata, why, then, Ananda, dost thou trouble the
Tathagata even until the third time? Have I not formerly declared to
you that it is in the very nature of all compound things that they
must be dissolved again? We must separate ourselves from all things
near and dear to us, and must leave them. How then, Ananda, can it
be possible for me to remain, since everything that is born, or
brought into being, and organized, contains within itself the inherent
necessity of dissolution? How, then, can it be possible that this body
of mine should not be dissolved? No such condition can exist! And this
mortal existence, O Ananda, has been relinquished, cast away,
renounced, rejected, and abandoned by the Tathagata."
And the Blessed One said to Ananda: "Go now, Ananda, and assemble in
the Service Hall such of the brethren as reside in the neighborhood of
Then the Blessed One proceeded to the Service Hall, and sat down
there on the mat spread out for him. And when he was seated, the
Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: "O brethren, ye to
whom the truth has been made known, having thoroughly made
yourselves masters of it, practice it, meditate upon it, and spread it
abroad, in order that pure religion may last long and be
perpetuated, in order that it may continue for the good and
happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, and to
the good and gain of all living beings! Star-gazing and astrology,
forecasting lucky or unfortunate events by signs, prognosticating good
or evil, all these are things forbidden. He who lets his heart go
loose without restraint shall not attain Nirvana; therefore, must we
hold the heart in check, and retire from worldly excitements and
seek tranquility of mind. Eat your food to satisfy your hunger, and
drink to satisfy your thirst. Satisfy the necessities of life like the
butterfly that sips the flower, without destroying its fragrance or
its texture. It is through not understanding and grasping the four
truths, O brethren, that we have gone astray so long and wandered in
this weary path of transmigrations, both you and I, until we have
found the truth. Practice the earnest meditations I have taught you.
Continue in the great struggle against sin. Walk steadily in the roads
of saintship. Be strong in moral powers. Let the organs of your
spiritual sense be quick. When the seven kinds of wisdom enlighten
your mind, you will find the noble, eightfold path that leads to
"Behold, O brethren, the final extinction of the Tathagata will take
place before long. I now exhort you, saying: All component things must
grow old and be dissolved again. Seek ye for that which is
permanent, and work out your salvation with diligence."


THE Blessed One went to Pava. When Chunda, the worker in metals,
heard that the Blessed One had come to Pava and was staying in his
mango grove, he came to the Buddha and respectfully invited him and
the brethren to take their meal at his house. And Chunda prepared
rice-cakes and a dish of dried boar's meat.
When the Blessed One had eaten the food prepared by Chunda, the
worker in metals, there fell upon him a dire sickness, and sharp
pain came upon him even unto death. But the Blessed One, mindful and
self-possessed, bore it without complaint. And the Blessed One
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: "Come, Ananda, let us go
on to Kusinara."
On his way the Blessed One grew tired, and he went aside from the
road to rest at the foot of a tree, and said: "Fold the robe, I pray
thee, Ananda, and spread it out for me. I am weary, Ananda, and must
rest awhile!" "Be it so, Lord!" said the venerable Ananda; and he
spread out the robe folded fourfold. The Blessed One seated himself,
and when he was seated he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said:
"Fetch me some water, I pray thee, Ananda. I am thirsty, Ananda, and
would drink."
When he had thus spoken, the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed
One: "But just now, Lord, five hundred carts have gone across the
brook and have stirred the water; but a river, O Lord, is not far off.
Its water is clear and pleasant, cool and transparent, and it is
easy to get down to it. the Blessed One may both drink water and
cool his limbs."
A second time the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda,
saying: "Fetch me some water, I pray thee, Ananda, I am thirsty,
Ananda, and would drink."
And a second time the venerable Ananda said: "Let us go to the
Then the third time the Blessed One addressed the venerable
Ananda, and said: "Fetch me some water, I pray thee, Ananda, I am
thirsty, Ananda and would drink." "Be it so, Lord!" said the venerable
Ananda in assent to the Blessed One; and, taking a bowl, he went
down to the streamlet. And lo! the streamlet, which, stirred up by
wheels, had become muddy, when the venerable Ananda came up to it,
flowed clear and bright and free from all turbidity. And he thought:
"How wonderful, how marvelous is the great might and power of the
Ananda brought the water in the bowl to the Lord, saying: "Let the
Blessed One take the bowl. Let the Happy One drink the water. Let
the Teacher of men and gods quench his thirst. Then the Blessed One
drank of the water.
Now, at that time a man of low caste, named Pukkusa, a young
Malla, a disciple of Alara Kalama, was passing along the high road
from Kusinara to Pava. Pukkusa, the young Malla, saw the Blessed One
seated at the foot of a tree. On seeing him he went up to the place
where the Blessed One was, and when he had come there, he saluted
the Blessed One and took his seat respectfully on one side. Then the
Blessed One instructed, edified, and gladdened Kukkusa, the young
Malla, with religious discourse.
Aroused and gladdened by the words of the Blessed One, Pukkusa,
the young Malla, addressed a certain man who happened to pass by,
and said: "Fetch me, I pray thee, my good man, two robes of cloth of
gold, burnished and ready for wear."
"Be it so, sir!" said that man in assent to Pukkusa, the young
Malla; and he brought two robes of cloth of gold, burnished and
ready for wear.
The Malla Pukkusa presented the two robes of cloth of gold,
burnished and ready for wear, to the Blessed One, saying: "Lord, these
two robes of burnished cloth of gold are ready for wear. May the
Blessed One show me favor and accept them at my hands!"
The Blessed One said: "Pukkusa, robe me in one, and Ananda in the
other one." And the Tathagata's body appeared shining like a flame,
and he was beautiful above all expression.
The venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: "How wonderful a thing
is it, Lord, and how marvelous, that the color of the skin of the
Blessed One should be so clear, so exceedingly bright! When I placed
this robe of burnished cloth of gold on the body of the Blessed One,
lo! it seemed as if it had lost its splendor!"
The Blessed One said: "There are two occasions on which a
Tathagata's appearance becomes clear and exceeding bright. In the
night, Ananda, in which a Tathagata attains to the supreme and perfect
insight, and in the night in which he passes finally away in that
utter passing away which leaves nothing whatever of his earthly
existence to remain.
And the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: "Now
it may happen, Ananda, that some one should stir up remorse in Chunda,
the smith, by saying: 'It is evil to thee, Chunda, and loss to thee,
that the Tathagata died, having eaten his last meal from thy
provision.' Any such remorse, Ananda, in Chunda, the smith, should
be checked by saying: 'It is good to thee, Chunda, and gain to thee,
that the Tathagata died, having eaten his last meal from thy
provision. From the very mouth of the Blessed One, O Chunda, have I
heard, from his own mouth have I received this saying, "These two
offerings of food are of equal fruit and of much greater profit than
any other: the offerings of food which a Tathagata accepts when he has
attained perfect enlightenment and when he passes away by the utter
passing away in which nothing whatever of his earthly existence
remains behind-these two offerings of food are of equal fruit and of
equal profit, and of much greater fruit and much greater profit than
any other. There has been laid up by Chunda, the smith, a karma
redounding to length of life, redounding to good birth, redounding
to good fortune, redounding to good fame, redounding to the
inheritance of heaven and of great power."' In this way, Ananda,
should be checked any remorse in Chunda, the smith."
Then the Blessed One, perceiving that death was near, uttered
these words: "He who gives away shall have real gain. He who subdues
himself shall be free, he shall cease to be a slave of passions. The
righteous man casts off evil; and by rooting out lust, bitterness, and
illusion, do we reach Nirvana."


THE Blessed One proceeded with a great company of the brethren to
the sala grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana of Kusinara on the
further side of the river Hirannavati, and when he had arrived he
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: "Make ready for me, I pray
you, Ananda, the couch with its head to the north, between the twin
sala trees. I am weary, Ananda, and wish to lie down."
"Be it so, Lord!" said the venerable Ananda, and he spread a couch
with its head to the north, between the twin sala trees. And the
Blessed One laid himself down, and he was mindful and self-possessed.
Now, at that time the twin sala trees were full of bloom with
flowers out of season; and heavenly songs came wafted from the
skies, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And
Ananda was filled with wonder that the Blessed One was thus honored.
But the Blessed One said: "Not by such events, Ananda, is the
Tathagata rightly honored, held sacred, or revered. But the devout
man, who continually fulfills the greater and lesser duties, walking
according to the precepts, it is who rightly honors, holds sacred, and
reveres the Tathagata with the worthiest homage. Therefore, O
Ananda, be ye constant in the fulfillment of the greater and of the
lesser duties, and walk according to the precepts; thus, Ananda,
will ye honor the Master."
Then the venerable Ananda went into the vihara, and stood leaning
against the doorpost, weeping at the thought: "Alas! I remain still
but a learner, one who has yet to work out his own perfection. And the
Master is about to pass away from me-who is so kind!"
Now, the Blessed One called the brethren, and said: "Where, O
brethren, is Ananda?" One of the brethren went and called Ananda.
And Ananda came and said to the Blessed One: "Deep darkness reigned
for want of wisdom; the world of sentient creatures was groping for
want of light; then the Tathagata lit up the lamp of wisdom, and now
it will be extinguished again, ere he has brought it out."
The Blessed One said to the venerable Ananda, as he sat there by his
side: "Enough, Ananda Let not thy self be troubled; do not weep!
Have I not already, on former occasions, told you that it is in the
very nature of all things most near and dear unto us that we must
separate from them and leave them? The foolish man conceives the
idea of 'self,' the wise man sees there is no ground on which to build
the idea of 'self,' thus he has a right conception of the world and
well concludes that all compounds amassed by sorrow will be
dissolved again, but the truth will remain. Why should I preserve this
body of flesh, when the body of the excellent law will endure? I am
resolved; having accomplished my purpose and attended to the work
set me, I look for rest I For a long time, Ananda, thou hast been very
near to me by thoughts and acts of such love as is beyond all measure.
Thou hast done well, Ananda I Be earnest in effort and thou too
shalt soon be free from evils, from sensuality, from selfishness, from
delusion, and from ignorance!"
Ananda, suppressing his tears, said to the Blessed One: "Who shall
teach us when thou art gone?"
And the Blessed One replied: "I am not the first Buddha who came
upon earth, nor shall I be the last. In due time another Buddha will
arise in the world, a Holy One, a supremely enlightened One, endowed
with wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe, an
incomparable leader of men, a master of angels and mortals. He will
reveal to you the same eternal truths which I have taught you. He will
preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at the climax,
and glorious at the goal, in the spirit and in the letter. He will
proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and pure; such as I now
Ananda said: "How shall we know him?" The Blessed One said: "He will
be known as Metteyya, which means 'he whose name is kindness.'"


THEN the Mallas, with their young men and maidens and their wives,
being grieved, and sad, and afflicted at heart, went to the
Upavattana, the sala grove of the Mallas, and wanted to see the
Blessed One, in order to partake of the bliss that devolves upon those
who are in the presence of the Holy One.
The Blessed One addressed them and said: "Seeking the way, ye must
exert yourselves and strive with diligence. It is not enough to have
seen me Walk as I have commanded you; free yourselves from the tangled
net of sorrow. Walk in the path with steadfast aim. A sick man may
be cured by the healing power of medicine and will be rid of all his
ailments without beholding the physician. He who does not do what I
command sees me in vain. This brings no profit; while he who lives far
off from where I am and yet walks righteously is ever near me. A man
may dwell beside me, and yet, being disobedient, be far away from
me. Yet he who obeys the Dharma will always enjoy the bliss of the
Tathagata's presence."
Then the mendicant Subhadda went to the sala grove of the Mallas and
said to the venerable Ananda: "I have heard from fellow mendicants
of mine, who were deep stricken in years and teachers of great
experience: 'Sometimes and full seldom do Tathagatas appear in the
world, the holy Buddhas.' Now it is said that today in the last
watch of the night, the final passing away of the samana Gotama will
take place. My mind is full of uncertainty, yet have I faith in the
samana Gotama and trust he will be able so to present the truth that I
may become rid of my doubts. O that I might be allowed to see the
samana Gotama!"
When he had thus spoken the venerable Ananda said to the mendicant
Subhadda: "Enough! friend Subhadda. Trouble not the Tathagata. The
Blessed One is weary." Now the Blessed One overheard this conversation
of the venerable Ananda with the mendicant Subhadda. And the Blessed
One called the venerable Ananda, and said: "Ananda! Do not keep out
Subhadda. Subhadda may be allowed to see the Tathagata. Whatever
Subhadda will ask of me, he will ask from a desire for knowledge,
and not to annoy me, and whatever I may say in answer to his
questions, that he will quickly understand."
Then the venerable Ananda said: "Step in, friend Subhadda; for the
Blessed One gives thee leave."
When the Blessed One had instructed Subhadda, and aroused and
gladdened him with words of wisdom and comfort, Subhadda said to the
Blessed One: "Glorious Lord, glorious Lord! Most excellent are the
words of thy mouth, most excellent! They set up that which has been
overturned, they reveal that which has been hidden. They point out the
right road to the wanderer who has gone astray. They bring a lamp into
the darkness so that those who have eyes to see can see. Thus, Lord,
the truth has been made known to me by the Blessed One and I take my
refuge in the Blessed One, in the Truth, and in the Order. May the
Blessed One accept me as a disciple and true believer, from this day
forth as long as life endures."
And Subhadda, the mendicant, said to the venerable Ananda: "Great is
thy gain, friend Ananda, great is thy good fortune, that for so many
years thou hast been sprinkled with the sprinkling of discipleship
in this brotherhood at the hands of the Master himself!"
Now the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: "It
may be, Ananda, that in some of you the thought may arise The word
of the Master is ended, we have no teacher more!' But it is not
thus, Ananda, that you should regard it. It is true that no more shall
I receive a body, for all future sorrow has now forever passed away.
But though this body will be dissolved, the Tathagata remains. The
truth and the rules of the order which I have set forth and laid
down for you all, let them, after I am gone, be a teacher unto
you.When I am gone, Ananda, let the order, if it should so wish,
abolish all the lesser and minor precepts."
Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: "There may be
some doubt or misgiving in the mind of a brother as to the Buddha,
or the truth, or the path. Do not have to reproach yourselves
afterwards with the thought, 'We did not inquire of the Blessed One
when we were face to face with him.' Therefore inquire now, O
brethren, inquire freely."
The brethren remained silent. Then the venerable Ananda said to
the Blessed One: "Verily, I believe that in this whole assembly of the
brethren there is not one brother who has any doubt or misgiving as to
the Buddha, or the truth, or the path!"
Said the Blessed One: "It is out of the fullness of faith that
thou hast spoken, Ananda! But Ananda, the Tathagata knows for
certain that in this whole assembly of the brethren there is not one
brother who has any doubt or misgiving as to the Buddha, or the truth,
or the path! For even the most backward, Ananda, of all these brethren
has become converted, and is assured of final salvation."
Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren and said: "If ye now
know the Dharma the cause of all suffering, and the path of salvation,
O disciples, will ye then say: 'We respect the Master, and out of
reverence for the Master do we thus speak?'" The brethren replied:
"That we shall not, O Lord."
And the Holy One continued: "Of those beings who live in
ignorance, shut up and confined, as it were, in an egg, I have first
broken the egg-shell of ignorance and alone in the universe obtained
the most exalted, universal Buddhahood. Thus, O disciples, I am the
eldest, the noblest of beings.
"But what ye speak, O disciples, is it not even that which ye have
yourselves known, yourselves seen, yourselves realized?" Ananda and
the brethren said: "It is, O Lord."
Once more the Blessed One began to speak: "Behold now, brethren,
said he, I exhort you, saying, 'Decay is inherent in all component
things, but the truth will remain forever Work out your salvation with
diligence!" This was the last word of the Tathagata. Then the
Tathagata fell into a deep meditation, and having passed through the
four jhanas, entered Nirvana.
When the Blessed One entered Nirvana there arose, at his passing out
of existence, a mighty earthquake, terrible and awe-inspiring: and the
thunders of heaven burst forth, and of those of the brethren who
were not yet free from passions some stretched out their arms and
wept, and some fell headlong on the ground, in anguish at the thought:
"Too soon has the Blessed One died! Too soon has the Happy One
passed away from existence! Too soon has the Light of the world gone
Then the venerable Anuruddha exhorted the brethren and said:
"Enough, my brethren! Weep not, neither lament! Has not the Blessed
One formerly declared this to us, that it is in the very nature of all
things near and dear unto us, that we must separate from them and
leave them, since everything that is born, brought into being, and
organized, contains within itself the inherent necessity of
dissolution? How then can it be possible that the body of the
Tathagata should not be dissolved? No such condition can exist!
Those who are free from passion will bear the loss, calm and
self-possessed, mindful of the truth he has taught us."
The venerable Anuruddha and the venerable Ananda spent the rest of
the night in religious discourse. Then the venerable Anuruddha said to
the venerable Ananda: "Go now, brother Ananda, and inform the Mallas
of Kusinara saying, 'The Blessed One has passed away: do, then,
whatsoever seemeth fit!'" And when the Mallas had heard this saying
they were grieved, and sad, and afflicted at heart.
Then the Mallas of Kusinara gave orders to their attendants, saying,
"Gather together perfumes and garlands, and all the music in
Kusinara!" And the Mallas of Kusinara took the perfumes and
garlands, and all the musical instruments, and five hundred
garments, and went to the sala grove where the body of the Blessed One
lay. There they passed the day in paying honor and reverence to the
remains of the Blessed One, with hymns, and music, and with garlands
and perfumes, and in making canopies of their garments, and
preparing decorative wreaths to hang thereon. And they burned the
remains of the Blessed One as they would do to the body of a king of
When the funeral pyre was lit, the sun and moon withdrew their
shining, the peaceful streams on every side were torrent-swollen,
the earth quaked, and the sturdy forests shook like aspen leaves,
whilst flowers and leaves fell untimely to the ground, like
scattered rain, so that all Kusinara became strewn knee-deep with
mandara flowers raining down from heaven.
When the burning ceremonies were over, Devaputta said to the
multitudes that were assembled round the pyre: "Behold, O brethren,
the earthly remains of the Blessed One have been dissolved, but the
truth which he has taught us lives in our minds and cleanses us from
all error. Let us, then, go out into the world, as compassionate and
merciful as our great master, and preach to all living beings the four
noble truths and the eightfold path of righteousness, so that all
mankind may attain to a final salvation, taking refuge in the
Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha."
When the Blessed One had entered into Nirvana and the Mallas had
burned the body with such ceremonies as would indicate that he was the
great king of kings, ambassadors came from all the empires that at the
time had embraced his doctrine, to claim a share of the relics; and
the relics were divided into eight parts and eight dagobas were
erected for their preservation. One dagoba was erected by the
Mallas, and seven others by the seven kings of those countries whose
people had taken refuge in the Buddha.


WHEN the Blessed One had passed away into Nirvana, the disciples
came together and consulted what to do in order to keep the Dharma
pure and uncorrupted by heresies.
Upali rose, saying: "Our great Master used to say to the brethren:
'O bhikkhus! after my final entrance into Nirvana you must reverence
and obey the law. Regard the law as your master. The law is like
unto a light that shines in the darkness, pointing out the way; it
is also like unto a precious jewel to gain which you must shun no
trouble, and be ready to bring any sacrifice; even, should it be
needed, your own lives. Obey the Dharma which I have revealed to
you; follow it carefully and if as in no way different from myself.'
Such were the words of the Blessed One. The law, accordingly, which
the Buddha has left us as a precious inheritance has now become the
visible body of the Tathagata. Let us, therefore, revere it and keep
it sacred. For what is the use of erecting dagobas for relics, if we
neglect the spirit of the Master's teachings?"
Then Anuruddha arose and said: "Let us bear in mind, O brethren,
that Gotama Siddhattha has revealed the truth to us. He was the Holy
One and the Perfect One and the Blessed One, because the eternal truth
had taken abode in him. The Tathagata taught us that the truth existed
before he was born into this world, and will exist after he has
entered into Nirvana. The Tathagata said: 'The truth is omnipresent
and eternal, endowed with excellencies innumerable, above all human
nature, and ineffable in its holiness.'
"Now let us bear in mind that not this or that law which is revealed
to us in the Dhanna is the Buddha, but the entire truth, the truth
which is eternal, omnipresent, immutable, and most excellent. Many
regulations of the Sangha are temporary; they were prescribed
because they suited the occasion and were needed for some transient
emergency. The truth, however, is not temporary. The truth is not
arbitrary nor a matter of opinion, but can be investigated, and he who
earnestly searches for the truth will find it. The truth is hidden
to the blind, but he who has the mental eye sees the truth. The
truth is Buddha's essence, and the truth will remain the ultimate
standard. Let us, then, revere the truth; let us inquire into the
truth and state it, and let us obey the truth. For the truth is Buddha
our Master, our Teacher."
And Kassapa rose and said: "Truly thou hast spoken well, O brother
Anuruddha. Neither is there any conflict of opinion on the meaning
of our religion. For the Blessed One possesses three personalities and
each of them is of equal importance to us. There is the Dharma Kaya.
There is the Nirmana Kaya. There is the Sambhoga Kaya. Buddha is the
all-excellent truth, eternal, omnipresent, and immutable: this is
the Sambhoga Kaya which is in a state of perfect bliss. Buddha is
the all-loving teacher assuming the shape of the beings whom he
teaches: this is the Nirmana Kaya, his apparitional body. Buddha is
the all-blessed dispensation of religion; he is the spirit of the
Sangha and the meaning of the commands left us in his sacred word, the
Dharma: this is the Dharma Kaya, the body of the most excellent law.
"If Buddha had not appeared to us as Gotama Sakyamuni, how could
we have the sacred traditions of his doctrine? And if the
generations to come did not have the sacred traditions preserved in
the Sangha, how could they know anything of the great Sakyamuni? And
neither we nor others would know anything about the most excellent
truth which is eternal, omnipresent, and immutable. Let us then keep
sacred and revere the traditions; let us keep sacred the memory of
Gotama Sakyamuni, so that people may find the truth."
Then the brethren decided to convene a synod to lay down the
doctrines of the Blessed One, to collate the sacred writings, and to
establish a canon which should serve as a source of instruction for
future generations.


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